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Could the Gut Cure Neuroinflammation? An MS and ME/CFS/FM Inquiry

Gut Neuroinflammation Connection Revealed

“There is something very critical about how the gut and brain are connected, and we’re starting to unravel the molecular threads behind that clinical observation. It’s a great example of how fast science can move.” Jen Gommerman – co-author

Limiting our attention solely to chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), fibromyalgia (FM) and allied disorders might be a mistake. Recent studies indicate that ME/CFS and FM fit into the broad category of neuroinflammatory disorders which include multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease and others.

ME/CFS and FM neuroinflammatory

ME/CFS and FM may fit into a broad spectrum of neuroinflammatory disorders.

The same parts of the brain may not be affected in each disease, but it’s possible that each is undergirded by a similar inflammatory milieu. If the goal is to reduce neuroinflammation, then an approach that works in one disease could work in another.

The immense amount of research being devoted to these other neuroinflammatory disorders suggests they could provide critical insights into ME/CFS and FM as well.

A recent multiple sclerosis gut study provided a prime example of how progress in one neuroinflammatory disease may benefit others. It underscored the gut’s long reach and illuminated a potential treatment approach – not just for MS, but possibly also for other neuroinflammatory diseases.

It raised the possibility that manipulating one’s gut bacteria may at some point become an effective treatment approach in the fight against neuroinflammation.

Cell. 2018 Dec 21. pii: S0092-8674(18)31560-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.11.035. [Epub ahead of print] Recirculating Intestinal IgA-Producing Cells Regulate Neuroinflammation via IL-10. Rojas OL1, Pröbstel AK2, Porfilio EA1, Wang AA1, Charabati M3, Sun T1, Lee DSW1, Galicia G1, Ramaglia V1, Ward LA1, Leung LYT1, Najafi G1, Khaleghi K1, Garcillán B4, Li A5, Besla R6, Naouar I1, Cao EY1, Chiaranunt P1, Burrows K1, Robinson HG7, Allanach JR7, Yam J1, Luck H5, Campbell DJ8, Allman D9, Brooks DG10, Tomura M11, Baumann R2, Zamvil SS12, Bar-Or A13, Horwitz MS14, Winer DA6, Mortha A1, Mackay F4, Prat A3, Osborne LC7, Robbins C15, Baranzini SE16, Gommerman JL17.

Their study started in the head and moved downwards. Researchers wondered where the heck the plasma cells (IgA antibody producing B-cells) showing up in the central nervous systems of MS patients were coming from. It turned out they were coming from the gut.  They found that B-cells were making their way to the gut where gut bacteria where flipping their switch – and turning them into IgA producing plasma cells. Now their one and only goal was to produce IgA antibodies.

IgA antibody gut chronic fatigue

IgA antibody producing cells that are formed in the gut appear to play a major role in tamping down inflammation in the brain

Eventually they made their way up the body to the brain, where (in the presence of IL-10) they were tamping down inflammation. Interestingly, the guts of the mouse model for MS were deficient in these cells. These plasma B-cells were so effective at reducing brain inflammation that boosting their levels in the mice’s guts returned them to health.

The levels of these plasma cells are also reduced in the guts of humans during MS relapses – presumably because they’re being recruited to the brain to fight the inflammation.

This finding cleared up a conundrum – why knocking out B-cells tended to help people with MS while knocking out only the IgA-producing cells made them worse. B-cells were believed to promote neuroinflammation and autoimmunity and they do. The B-cell inhibitors used are believed to reduce T-cell activation and suppress autoantibody production.

No one suspected, though, that specialized B-cells might also play a critical role in suppressing inflammation. Knocking those cells out resulted in the patients getting worse.

Gut Modification

“Showing that IgA-producing B cells can travel from the gut to the brain opens a new page in the book of neuroinflammatory diseases and could be the first step towards producing novel treatments to modulate or stop MS and related neurological disorders.” Sergio Baranzini – co-author

The next steps seem clear: find a way to increase the number of IgA-producing plasma cells in the guts of people with neuroinflammatory disorders in the hope that they will knock down inflammation in the brain. Because some bacteria – which ones is unknown at the moment – trigger B-cells in the gut to change to IgA producing plasma B-cells, the next step is to identify that microbe and find a way to increase its numbers.  In other words, find a way for the gut to naturally reduce inflammation in the brain.

“If we can understand what these cells are reacting to, we can potentially treat MS by modulating our gut commensals. That might be easier than getting drugs into the brain, which is a strategy that hasn’t always worked in MS.” Gommerman – senior author

Potential Relevance to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Fibromyalgia, etc.

“As a clinician-scientist, it is exciting that our experiments linking preclinical animal models to the biology we see in real MS patients may have uncovered a general mechanism for how the immune system counteracts inflammation.” Pröbstel – co-author

Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is not MS but the two diseases might be more closely related than one might think. Having mononucleosis/glandular fever increases the risk of coming down with either ME/CFS or MS and infections often trigger relapses in both diseases. The most disabling symptom in MS tends to be fatigue and both diseases mostly affect women. Plus pregnancy often brings a (temporary) respite in both diseases.

A Simmaron Research Foundation sponsored spinal fluid study found similar levels of immune alterations in ME/CFS and MS, and pointed to a major, almost MS-like, alteration of immune factors in ME/CFS.

Simmaron’s Spinal Fluid Study Finds Dramatic Differences in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Jarred Younger, who knows neuroinflammation as well as anyone in this field, believes that MS and ME/CFS could turn out to be close cousins. Younger believes the neuroinflammation present in both diseases may be similar, with the notable distinction that the immune cells in MS have been tweaked to attack the neurons, while those in ME/CFS, thankfully, have not. (Younger has begun a low dose naltrexone trial in early stage MS patients to see if he can stop the neuroinflammation before it has irrevocably damaged the nerves.)

 

Jarred Younger III : Treatments – A Better LDN and the Hunt for Microglia Inhibitors

What works in MS could work in ME/CFS and it already has – at least in two cases. A MS drug called Copaxone was very effective in two ME/CFS patients who’d been misdiagnosed with MS. In fact, it was much more effective in those patients – resulting in significant reductions in fatigue –  than it ever was in MS.

The really exciting thing about this study is its potential relatability to other diseases.  These researchers appeared to have stumbled upon a basic gut induced anti-inflammatory pathway that may help with other neuroinflammatory diseases including, who knows, perhaps ME/CFS and FM.

It’s clear that we can’t view MS as strictly a brain disease. Yes, the overt physical damage occurs in the brain, but gut issues play a role as well. In fact, this study suggests the possibility that gut damage – in the form of a dysregulated microbiome – might even play a critical role in allowing MS to progress.

Could the Gut Be a Potential Drug Factory?

Given the possibility that harnessing an as yet unknown microbe in the gut could reduce inflammation in the brain, one has to wonder if the gut, with its trillions of microbes, is a potential reservoir of drugs.  Could we tweak the microbes in the gut to provide other factors that reduce disease? Will gut manipulation ultimately play an important role in treating chronic diseases?

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62 Comments

  • Dana Tigani

    January 27, 2019 at 3:49 pm - Reply

    I’m very interested in this finding. My brother has MS and I have ME/CFS and fibromyalgia.

    • Cort Johnson

      January 27, 2019 at 5:50 pm - Reply

      Well that’s an interesting intersection. Maybe Jarred Younger is right…Just slightly different neuroinflammatory processes going in both of you (???)

  • Martina DeMike

    January 27, 2019 at 4:12 pm - Reply

    I have ME/CFS and Fibro plus I have IgA deficiency. My daughter also has IgA deficiency it is genetic and she and I both have gastro issues and migraines. I have always wondered if the IgA played a part in this?

    • Cort Johnson

      January 27, 2019 at 5:52 pm - Reply

      It was funny but one of the authors of the paper said that much is known about IgA….

  • Nikoli McCracken

    January 27, 2019 at 5:16 pm - Reply

    My daughter had mono, and then, just never got well. Years later, she was mis-diagnosed as having MS. Later, that was changed to a new diagnosis: Parkinson’s.

    I have ME/CFS, FMS, IBS, MCS, hypothyroidism, NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, caused by too much Tylenol in every darn prescription I was being given) My liver enzymes were 4 times higher than normal. My GP doctor thought at first, that I was an alcoholic. Six months later, he got an AMA journal that told about how dangerous too much Tylenol could be. He changed all my prescriptions to eliminate Tylenol. It took 17 years, but finally, my liver enzymes are down to normal levels. And for the record, I don’t drink, smoke, do drugs or abuse my medications! And never have. Legalize marijuana? Pffft! The stuff stinks! CBD? Maybe.
    Oh, yes, I became ill in June, 1981.

    • Cort Johnson

      January 27, 2019 at 5:49 pm - Reply

      Thanks for sharing your experience on Tylenol. Interesting family you have Nikoli! I wonder if your family has some nasty neuroinflammation supporting genes.

  • mark

    January 27, 2019 at 5:47 pm - Reply

    God bless ALL of you gifted, gifted people. It’s obvious that all your hard work has gotten you to the precipice of helping MILLIONS of people similar to me. UNBELIEVABLY important work you’re all doing and AMAZING discoveries you’re all making. Thank you, thank you, thank you!!!!!

  • Jessica

    January 27, 2019 at 6:56 pm - Reply

    Maybe we all just need fecal transplants! 🙂
    Since my near constant ingestion of home grown fermented products hasn’t healed me yet….

    • Cort Johnson

      January 27, 2019 at 11:35 pm - Reply

      It’s going to be interesting. A fecal transplant study in ME/CFS is underway. If there’s a general deficiency trhat fecal transplants can fix they could work. On the other hand is there’s a specific deficiency – one or several microbes – a more precise approach may be needed. I think this study and its aftermath is going to open up some interesting findings on the gut.

      • sue

        January 28, 2019 at 3:05 pm - Reply

        hi cort. do you know who is doing the fecal transplant study? i know wpi was going to do one but couldnt get funding..
        thanks

        • Cort Johnson

          January 28, 2019 at 7:02 pm - Reply

          Maureen Hanson with a group in Europe is – I think maybe in Norway. I think it may be in this talk

        • Agnes

          January 29, 2019 at 2:22 am - Reply

          Hi Sue and Cort
          I saw that there’s one being done in London Ontario for MS. I believe the study just closed.

          • Cort Johnson

            January 30, 2019 at 12:46 am -

            Thanks!

    • Fabio

      January 28, 2019 at 5:56 pm - Reply

      Jessica, many ME/CFS patients suffer from SIBO (the methane one the most freuqent, with constipation). If there is SIBO (lactulose breath tes is a simple test) eating FOS and probiotics worsen symptoms, while high dose rifaximin helps a lot.

      • Joanie

        January 31, 2019 at 3:04 am - Reply

        what is SIBO and FOS?

        • Cort Johnson

          February 19, 2019 at 2:49 am - Reply

          Small intestine bacterial overgrowth I think for SIBO

  • Yvonne Embling

    January 27, 2019 at 9:33 pm - Reply

    I have me/cfs and have been taking LDN (low dose naltexone) for just over a year. It has greatly improved cognitive function and energy levels have improved to the point that with pacing I can manage a lot more tasks in my day. Thanks for all the new research and information it is so appreciated.

    • Grace

      January 30, 2019 at 3:22 pm - Reply

      Hi Yvonne, I was thinking if trying LDN
      Are you based in the UK? If so, do you have any advice on obtaining it?

      • Yvonne Embling

        January 31, 2019 at 4:14 am - Reply

        Hi Grace, No I am in New Zealand. I read the LDN book. Then asked my doctor for a prescription which I then needed to take to a compounding pharmacy for it to be filled. I started low and increased by .5mg weekly till I got my current dose of 4.5mg which I take at 9pm. Initially it costs a little more but once on 4.5 it works out at about a dollar a day ( NZ). Worth a try. All the best.

  • dejurgen

    January 28, 2019 at 12:39 am - Reply

    That is a *major* discovery I believe.

    At first, gut bacteria producing massive amounts of antibodies !decreasing! brain inflammation is about the opposite I would expect. Large amounts of antibodies are for more associated with causing auto immune disease rather then decreasing it. But then Wikipedia comes to the help en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunoglobulin_A:

    “Microbial

    Neisseria species including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (which causes gonorrhea),[18] Streptococcus pneumoniae,[19] and Haemophilus influenzae type B[20] all release a protease that destroys IgA. Additionally, Blastocystis species have been shown to have several subtypes that generate cysteine and aspartic protease enzymes which degrade human IgA.[21] ”

    That totally makes sense. Many nasty bacteria ending up on endothelial surfaces including skin and gut try to punch holes through said surfaces to enter the body and or bloodstream. For achieving such goals, they use very aggressive specific digestive enzymes than can “burn” holes through the cell walls (of endothelial cells including cells of blood vessels).

    IgA seems to be very vulnerable to such “very aggressive specific digestive enzymes burning holes through cell walls”. So our body developed a natural “sensor” for detecting known and unknown aggressive bacteria trying to breach endothelial cell walls: IgA!

    It’s seems like it was a brilliant strategy:
    * first step in evolution: the guts own cells produce plenty of IgA. When little of it arrives at the brain when traveling from the gut to the brain then it indicates a major infection with one of those nasties is going on, as these nasties have enzymes that they need to break the cell walls. IgA apparently proved to be so vulnerable to all sorts of cell-wall-breaking enzymes that bacteria couldn’t evolve enzymes that break cell walls without destroying IgA. This made making large amounts of IgA and detecting how much of it survives an ideal detector of this type of infection, even when meeting never seen before bacterial infections. If few IgA is detected at the brain, increase gut inflammation a lot to destroy the nasties and increase brain inflammation a bit. The later could help if those nasties breach the gut barrier (leaky gut) and travel to the brain-blood-interface trying to do the same trick over there with there cell-wall destroying enzymes. Inflammation at the brain needs to be less strong then at the gut as the brain would see far smaller numbers attacking it’s barrier due to dispersion of the nasties.
    * second step in evolution: good gut bacteria evolved mechanisms to decrease being attacked by our immune system. They didn’t stop by not destroying IgA (thereby proving they are not trying to attack our cells) but learned to produce IgA themselves or rather learned to reprogram B-cells, sent out to attack all sorts of pathogen but also them, to B-cells producing the IgA aka “we come in peace” message to the brain.

    => If this would be the mechanism at work, it’s not one or a few good bacteria that produce this message. It’s most of them. Looking for good bacteria reprogramming the B-cells to produce IgA may yield a very high number of them. It rather would be the ratio between good and bad bacteria in combination with the total amount of gut bacteria that is determining the IgA production in the gut.
    => This idea would also be very much in line why there is no specific immune marker to be found in (gut related) ME. This hypothetical process describes a general unspecific immune response not targeted to anything in specific. It “just” increase body wide inflammation levels significantly and gut inflammation levels a lot. No target, in military terms more like code orange body wide and code red at the gut: shoot anything looking suspicious first ask questions later. That resembles a lot like what seems to be happening in ME. No specific immune marker and if I get it correct maybe less of an unspecific immune marker (less of IgA). That might confuse and mess up blood based ME diagnosis.

    • dejurgen

      January 28, 2019 at 1:25 am - Reply

      This mechanism seems to be in line with my gut observations.

      When I have nasty gut symptoms I probably have plenty of bad bacteria in the gut. Stool is then very quick probably in order to flush them out. When I eat food I am most intollerant to after not having it eaten for some time, around the time I have a quick onset of sudden diarrhea I also have a near instant (in 15 to 30 minutes!) very strong feelings of deep sadness with shortly later a strong surge in body wide pain (starting with the joints but quickly expanding everywhere thereafter), a sharp drop in energy and a rapid increase in mind fog.

      This diarrhea onset typically comes about 12 to 16 hours after I eat the food. That probably is the time before it gets into the large intestine plus some time for “rapid bad bacteria explosion”.

      At the time of diarrhea two factors help hand in hand destroying this IgA: plenty of bad bacteria destroying IgA plus a strong reduction in total bacteria count due to the flushing out of gut contents. This obviously also flushes out good IgA producing bacteria. So If (very) low amounts of gut-produced IgA would trigger brain inflammation then having such quick and sudden surge in brain inflammation related symptoms makes total sense with bad bacteria induced run to the toilet type of diarrhea.

      Note helping following above: I start to suspect a lot that near all of my large set of food intollerances are gut-bacteria related. It seems to be a reaction to the bacteria present in the gut that live and thrive very well on the foods I am intollerant too rather then to the food itself. Combined with the previous comment that again would be in line with the lack of specific immune markers for near all food intollerances.

      • Cort Johnson

        January 28, 2019 at 7:09 pm - Reply

        Nice how you were able to possibly link all that together 🙂

        • Martin

          January 28, 2019 at 8:06 pm - Reply

          My, when I put those links to our microbiome & FMT & ME/CFS, I didn’t expect so many comments.
          One caution we need to take is, until the cause is definitively found, not to cling to one specific thing or idea as that blinds us to ongoing research into other possible causes.

          I read some pretty ‘way out’ ideas on this site sometimes….

          It seems Fibro & ME/CFS are related, sharing similar symptoms.
          It seems reasonable that they may be caused by the same thing, but as with colds, Flu etc vary in symptoms from person to person.
          Searching through NIH’s PubMed I read that researchers believe Lupus, MS & CFS are caused by the same thing. Herpes 4 also known as Epstein Barr or infectious mononucleosis.
          They didn’t go so far as to say it was though.
          Another factor is that each of us & our immune systems are somewhat different, which explains why the same disease can have different affects on different people.

  • Donna

    January 28, 2019 at 2:25 am - Reply

    Finally , someone in science is looking at the GUT, the alternative practitioners have known for yrs, all disease , starts in the GUT!!!!! ( 20 yrs of CFS/MCS) AND I have been trying to heal my gut , for at least 15 of those yrs. With no success, because I lived in & around to many PESTICIDES & HERBICIDE sprays – agricultural spraying. Then you get too many HEAVY METALS, in the body that go on to, disrupt the GUT, even further. They need to look at heavy metals also!!!!!!!!!!!!! That’s why our VETS, get so much PTSD, chemical war fare.

  • Issie

    January 28, 2019 at 2:45 am - Reply

    You can do uBiome or Thrive and find out what a snapshot if your gut ecology is. Load it into Ken Lassesens evaluation program and find out what organisms you have and how to tweak them. It will list the illness associated with your out of balance organisms and what to do to increase them or decrease them. It’s pretty complex and a work in progress. But pretty amazing how all interact with each other. Tweaking one a certain way will affect another in another way. Some things we may be doing could hurt us when taking the whole picture into account. It’s made me reevaluate what I take supplement wise and eat.

    • Issie

      February 3, 2019 at 2:46 am - Reply

      Here’s more info from Ken’s site. Appears blood types may make a difference with microbiome.

      Blood Type: Microbiome and Diet | CFS Remission
      https://cfsremission.com/2019/02/02/blood-type-microbiome-and-diet/

      • dejurgen

        February 3, 2019 at 7:50 am - Reply

        Thanks Issie!

        That was just the info I was looking for. I already looked into the blood type diet but didn’t see it suit very well to my case. It could be because I have added intolerances not taken into account or because it needs some more finetuning as Ken does with his analysis. Good to see the graph on actual measurements!
        It also explains why I don’t experience any difference in digesting “complex mixed meals” as many people do: “This blood type has a very well-developed ability to digest meals that contain both protein and fat. This is because two chemicals used by the digestive tract, an enzyme called intestinal alkaline phosphatase, and a lipoprotein called ApoB48 are secreted into the digestive tract in much higher amounts by type O’s.”
        Good news: “These digestive factors greatly enhance the ability of type O… …to heal their digestive tract” as this is a bottleneck for me currently. Probably it has seen a lot of damage due to my many inherited food intolerances left undetected for decades.
        Some other things about my blood group sound very familiar too.

  • Donna

    January 28, 2019 at 2:48 am - Reply

    My symptoms started, after being given a DRUG, called FLAGYL, to kill off a Giardia infection, BUT, what they don’t tell you , is it also kills of all your other good bacteria as well AND then, all these BAD bacteria take over, the gut and bowel. Ended up with 20yrs of CONSTIPATION. Been down to Center for Digestive Diseases (Australia), 2yrs ago (do they know their stuff) . First they put you on drugs, to kill off all the bad guys, AND then had a Feacal Transplant. .WOW , fixed my constipation, but my CFS/MSC is actually worse , because of the drugs I had to take, which just added to my HEAVY METAL overload. And as good as they are at the CDD, they have no understanding of heavy metals from drugs.

    • Perrier

      January 28, 2019 at 1:57 pm - Reply

      Dear Donna
      I’m very interested in your experience with Dr Borody’s clinic. As you know, in his small study, done some time ago, decal transplant did help the ME patients.

      I’m a little puzzled by your experience: that in fact your CFS became “worse.”

      When I spoke to Dr Borody on the telephone some 2 years ago, when we were thinking of going there, he said that he generally gives an antibiotic before the focal transplant and that is it.

      What are these drugs that you received which added to your heavy metal overload. This is rather serious.

      Thanks and best wishes.

  • Wendy

    January 28, 2019 at 5:43 am - Reply

    Yes my brother has MS and I have ME/CFSFibromyalgia and Chrones. . So after reading this I think some wonderful people are on to this.

    • sue

      January 28, 2019 at 3:07 pm - Reply

      i think the new jak 1 inhibitors will help ME/CFS and it is doing very well in crohns trials, resulting in remission for most patients

      gilead and abbvie drugs to be launched last 2019 or early 2020

      • Cort Johnson

        January 28, 2019 at 7:06 pm - Reply

        Well that is very interesting and good news given that Vince Lombardi is assessing, in an SMCI funded pilot study – jak stat signatures in ME/CFS in hopes of identifying a subset of patients who will benefit from these drugs.

        Let’s hope he identifies some people who could benefit from the apparently growing treatment possibilities in that field.

        You can find more on that study – here – https://www.healthrising.org/blog/2018/11/03/ramsay-mitochondria-drug-target/

  • Andy

    January 29, 2019 at 10:02 am - Reply

    Let me tell you my story on C.F.S. I am 38 now. It all started when I was 27. I took antibiotics for an infection and after that it wasn’t the same. At the same time I tried to have a vegan diet with lots of fiber which somehow made things worse. I lost 18 kg in 10 years. I am 185 cm. In 2007 I weighed 83 kg, no fat, only muscles and in 2017 I weighed 65 kg. I could not eat anything. I was severely bloated and very foggy brained, I did not have the energy to climb one floor or sometimes walk more that a few steps. I was so severely out of breath. Of course that all the blood tests were good. Doctors told me I was depressed, but all the antidepressants and all other medicines (antibiotics, probiotics, antiacids) actually made my
    situation worse. I tried yoga and psychotherapy and all the supplements on the market, but it did not help at all. In 2017 reading about fecal transplants and being at wits end, I decided to try it on my own, cause no doctor would want to make the procedure. I just called on my cousin, which is the healthiest person I know, very healthy lifestyle and professional athlete. I did the procedure of FMT two days on a row. I can say that from the first day I could eat anything without being bloated, I was no longer constipated and I could go to the toilet two times per day and before the FMT I was going once at three days. I gained 5 kilograms in 15 days. Now, a year and a half after the FMT I am 80 kilograms again.Another good thing: I can do aerobic exercise at full level, I can go on hiking. Also a very interesting thing: before the FMT I was highly allergic to pets, fact proven with tests. After the procedure I am no longer allergic to cats or dogs, I can stay in a house that there were pets in. BUT, now let me tell you
    the negatives: while it practically cured my chronic physical fatigue, I can say that somehow made my mental fatigue worse. I am feeling more spaced out, I have a constant headache, particular brain fog and racing thoughts that I did not have before the FMT. I also can say that I have a general apathy after the procedure. If before the FMT, I made plans and wanted to enjoy life, now I can say that even if I can run and hike for many miles, I don’t enjoy doing it. Actually I don’t enjoy things like I used to before the FMT. A beautiful holidays on the most beautiful island or the most beautiful girl don’t give me shivers at all anymore. In a way it is good, I do not have anxiety when going to the doctor or being stressed about all kind of stuff. But at the same time I do not have the beautiful sensation of living life in general. So, the FMT changed my life for the better, but also somehow for the worse. I really do believe that something in there, either some particular bacteria or bacteriophages or metabolites is the answer to a vast majority of CFS. Do I recommend FMT for someone with CFS? Not really. I guess it is gambling. I guess there has to be a donor-recipient connection that medical science is not aware for the moment. With FMT in my opinion, you could end up feeling better and cured or you could end up feeling worse, or strange and somewhere in between like I did, even if the donor is a very healthy person. What is good for him might not be good for you. I think you should have the patience to wait for a more approached and personalized remedy.I am very enthusiastic to find about Prevotella Histicola in MS, I guess something similar may be found for CFS or maybe even P. Histicolla would work for CFS. And I hope for a remedy or at least for a treatment very soon , in maximum two years.

    • Martin

      January 30, 2019 at 1:43 am - Reply

      THX; your reference to Prevotella Histicola started me on another search on effects of gut bacteria.

      Here is a very long Pubmed that goes into a lot of interesting detail. It’s worth the time to read & may clear up some apparently confusing or contradictory results from FMT.
      I noted too, the references to ‘leaky gut’ or gut permeability. Check that out; quite a subject.

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2964729/

      You’ll also find not everything about Prevotella Histicola is good if you Google it…

      Researchers are battling a bewildering diversity & my sense is that you need a balance of many hundreds of species. So Fecal transplants are kind of a ‘shotgun’ approach to reestablish some kind of balance.

    • Martin

      January 30, 2019 at 1:57 am - Reply

      Here’s a pubmed on ‘leaky gut’ & CFS

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19112401

      Here’s Cornell University’s study: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/06/160627160939.htm

    • Agnes

      January 30, 2019 at 8:43 am - Reply

      Oh wow. Thank you Andy for sharing your story. I too am at wits end and was seriously considering doing an fmt on my own as my doctors have also denied my requests for one. They are doing fmts in Toronto as a cure to c. difficile. I wrote to the researcher heading that trial but never got a response. Does anyone know of any trials of fmt and FM? The fmt website has all of the trials being done but nothing on FM.

    • dejurgen

      January 30, 2019 at 9:14 am - Reply

      Hi Andy, thx for sharing your interesting experiences. Would you happen to have had food intollerances before or after the procedure or a change in them? After the procedure did you try to take probiotics again and if so with what result? Also, do I guess wright that now you can eat food with plenty of fiber vegies?

      Another thing of interest: do you and the cousin who helped you out happen to have different blood groups? Recently I have been pointed to the concept of the blood group diet. While its dietary advices ignore my food intollerances it is not off that much for the rest. What’s more, I ended up with much of my mothers problems but worse, while my sister did not. I have the same blood group as my mother and she has the same as my father.
      I know it is a very small sample, but blood groups are related to immunity and there are increasing indications that ones personal microbiome is related to how ones immune system operates. From wikipedia: “A blood type is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells.”
      @Cort: would you be aware of family studies with multiple members down with ME where family members with the same blood group have higher chances to inherit ME compared to people with a different blood group than the ill family members? Or would you have knowledge of studies on the impact of blood group of donor and recipient in FMT studies? Or would their be a study on the efficacy of specific types of probiotics in relation to blood group?

      • Andy

        January 30, 2019 at 9:09 pm - Reply

        Hi there. Before the procedure I can say that anything with soluble fiber (peas, figs,oats…) would have remained undigested. After the FMT I can digest them, but somehow after digesting soluble fiber it is like going directly in my head with headaches and racing thoughts. So somehow , even if they are digested , there is a strange reaction in my brain. I can somehow digest whole wheat bread or whole rice without any problems anymore. Somehow this soluble fiber and carbs give me the phisycal energy, but somehow fog my brain. If I am eating without fiber at all, white bread, sugary things and protein all day I am more focused mentally, but I cannot perform phisically well. The fiberless diet also gives me a more anxiety and adrenaline-like feeling. I think that contributes to my mental focus. Before the FMT I did a fecal test which said I was high on lactobacillus, high on enterococcus, high on bad ecoli that digwst protein, with no good ecoli that digest carb. Bifidobactdria was normal, but at the lower end. Bacteroides was a little bit high too. Before the FMT I tried all probiotics with no effect: bifidobacteria, lactobacillus (all kind), clostridyum butyricum, sacharomyces, bacilus coagulans did nothing. I tried Mutaflor too, but it gave me a terrible brain fog at that time. Some of the brain fog that I felt before the FMT with Mutaflor actually became constant now, after the FMT. After the FMT I tried again probiotics. Many of them with no effects.The ones that made a difference are: Mutaflor, whichgives me physical energy, but also a brain fog even now, after FMT, then interesting Lactobacillus Reuteri makes me more alert, and then one more whichbis called Securil (propionibacterium fredeurechi) which takes away my brain fog somehow, but also depletes my phisycal energy. The blood type diet did not and does not work for me. I do not think it is clinically relevant, at least regarding some vegetables or fruits. I can say now I can tolerate much more grains than before. My cousin is blood type A and I am blood type 0. Maybe he was not the perfect donor for me. Only the future will tel if fecal donors must be the same type of blood. My cousin did a stool test before the FMT and it showed he had no parasites and normal bacteria, all in range with good e coli a little bit high. I will try a papaya enzyme anyway. I tried glutamine before FMT, but it did nothing to me, only brain fog. I somehow believe (of course it is only a supposition of mine) that what helped me was not bacteria but viruses (bacteriophages). I also guess that my brain somehow feels better with high lactate as energy, but my body does not. Also, my body does feel well and phisically fit with low lactate, but my brain does not and feels foggy. Somehow I have to adjust my diet, so I can feel good before a specific situation. If I have to be phisically fit, but very foggy brain, then 24 hours fast, after which whole grain bread, figs, and many carbs and Mutaflor. If I want to be mentally fit and more brain alive, then Lactobacillus Reuteri and lots of protein or Securil with more fat. Other things that help me are vitamin b6 (but not all b vitamins), and only with high protein, chromium (again only with high protein diet). Vitamin C, ginseng and all these are not helping me. Adrenal glandular gives me a boost, but it only make situation worse if taken more than two days in a row. One more thing: even if with high fiber and carb I cannot perorm phisically, I cannot have an erection, I am not aroused by anything and it just does not go up. Only with high protein I can do it very well. I also can do it good with high lactate(lactobacillus plus high carb, but low fiber), but high lactate also means very premature ejaculation (a few seconds),so I should be prepared for the second round if I still can

        • dejurgen

          January 30, 2019 at 10:56 pm - Reply

          “Somehow this soluble fiber and carbs give me the phisycal energy, but somehow fog my brain. If I am eating without fiber at all, white bread, sugary things and protein all day I am more focused mentally, but I cannot perform phisically well. The fiberless diet also gives me a more anxiety and adrenaline-like feeling. I think that contributes to my mental focus.”

          It’s a very long shot and does not combine well with other information you gave but:
          * A fiberless diet easily gives a boost in adrenaline IMO: sugar supplied by it causes changing sugar spikes and lows. Adrenaline should come and go on such diet making mood shift rapidly with a general “background” feeling of anxiety. Spreading intake over more meals may somewhat reduce this effect. But the nights remain problematic.

          Whole rice is an interesting “in between” carb: it contains a far higher ratio carbs/fiber then for example wheat, making me digest it well. I learned to eat about 5 rice crackers (those dry round white-ish near tasteless foam shaped light weight things) before going to sleep. Its digestion is so light it does not disturb me and it provides a slow source of carbs in the small gut. That is special as the fiber slows its digestion but I believe digestion is still fast enough to happen mostly in the small gut, “bypassing” the gut bacteria living in the big gut.
          By providing a steady flow of “slow” glucose it decreases the need for adrenaline spikes and dips. It helps improving my sleep. It may be worth to try and eat some of it spread during the day and see how this affects you. I don’t know if cooked rice would work as well. I choose crackers out of convenience. Note: eating nothing but rise can cause arsenic buildup.

          As too having plenty of adrenaline and feeling physically weak: while adrenaline does typically increase (perceived) strength a lot it also does prioritize blood flow a lot to liver and brain. If blood flow regulation (blood vessel constriction/vascodilation) is very poor as it might be in some ME patients it might cause strange effects.

          Reading what you wrote there seems to be a sort of split in symptoms depending on the food mainly being digested in the small or large gut.
          Maybe, it’s a very far shot, if there were one sort of fibery food that does not give you the downsides you mentioned you could combine it with faster digesting food digesting in the small gut: whole rice, small amounts of potatoes and sweet potatoes per serving, some fat and proteins… and, I can hardly believe I write this, some amount of white grains and low amounts of sugar???
          For me, things like lettuce, celery (not root celery!), endive, chicory (the greens if I get the translation wright) seem to digest in a better way then other fibery vegetables. Maybe sprouts (fresh seedling of sunflower and other seeds I mean) may also offer the benefits of high nutrient content with low mass/amount of fiber. Fruit with high fructose to glucose ratio mostly ends up digested in the big gut.

          • Andy

            January 31, 2019 at 7:56 am -

            Sorry if I could not write everything right or I did not explain it right. I understand that not everything matches, cause sometime I do not know how to explain a particular reaction of my gut to myself, let alone to other people. But please ask me everything you did not understand right. My supposition is the following: before the FMT, my digestion happened a lot in the upper part of the intestine, because I had a lot of aerobic bacteria. Also I had a lot of bloating and food moved very slowly in the large intestine. When reaching the intestine I think it was already digested. After the FMT , I practically feel the food going through intestines. I think when it reaches the large intestine , it gives me that strange mentally foggy reaction, even if it also gives me phisical energy. Let me explain: now after the FMT , I also find very helpful doing intermittent fasting , one or maybe two days per week (18-24 hours IF). I feel the IF detoxifying my gut and feeling a lot fresh and mentally focused after it. So, after an IF I begin to eat a large meal, with fiber, carbs, protein, everything. Immediately after I eat it and 2-3 hours after finishing eating I feel calm , mentally focused, thinking sharply about things, wanting to read a book, see a movie, even have sex. 2-3 hours after the meal after the IF I practically feel the food going downstairs on my intestine. When that happens I am no longer interested in anything, nor aroused by anything, cannot concentrate mentally, but I have a physical energy that I spend only on physical exercise right away (two hour fast walking or one hour slow jogging). If I do not spend that energy on phisycal exercise at that time I am bloated afterwards and cannot get rid of the brain fog. If I am doing exercise, somehow that energy dissipates and afterwards I am more mentally focused. Before the FMT, practically I did not have the second part, the physical energy 2-3 hours after eating after IF. Before the FMT, if I did IF and tried to eat afterwards, I woul feel good as now 2-3 hours after eating, but then after these 2-3 hours I did not have physical energy as today, on the contrary I felt awfully both phisically and mentally and I could not do anything to feel better at that time, just maybe one more IF till it went away.

          • dejurgen

            January 31, 2019 at 10:30 am -

            Hi Andy,

            I suspect there are some common elements with what I experience and what TK seems to describe (see TK’s comment and my reaction to it below).

            “So, after an IF I begin to eat a LARGE meal, with fiber, carbs, protein, everything.”
            -> I suspect this meal is too high on volume, calories and too diverse in contents (fiber, carbs, protein, fat…” to be able to digest mainly in the small gut. May I suggest you try and reduce all of this a bit and see how that works out. Goal is: longer stay time in the small intestine and as much uptake of all food that can be uptaken by the small gut in the small gut itself. Try and see how that goes.

            “IMMEDIATELY after I eat it and 2-3 hours after finishing eating I feel calm , mentally focused, thinking sharply about things, wanting to read a book, see a movie, even have sex.”
            -> Now that immediately is a giveaway. I have something similar: often when I am eating or within 0.5 to 1.5 hours my guts start rumbling (bloathing). Now in that time the meal is supposed to be still in the stomach. If anything it should not contribute to nutrients and only cost energy to process in the stomach. So why the rumbling of the guts? I then believe I feel my “digested food” also moving in the gut. I think my body prepares (shifts food from small to big gut) the small gut to make room for the meal to come from the stomach to the gut.

            “2-3 hours after the meal after the IF I practically feel the food going downstairs on my intestine. When that happens I am no longer interested in anything, nor aroused by anything, cannot concentrate mentally,”
            -> My take on a somewhat comparable situation in my case is that at that time the food that was moved about an hour before from the small gut to the large gut, in order to make room for the meal in the stomach to get into the gut without “traffic jam”, is starting to grow bacteria in large quantities in the large gut and starts producing plenty of gas. The sensation here (in my case) may be more of the movement of gas that also shifts contents in the large gut.

            “but I have a physical energy that I spend only on physical exercise right away (two hour fast walking or one hour slow jogging). If I do not spend that energy on phisycal exercise at that time I am bloated afterwards and cannot get rid of the brain fog.”
            -> I do not yet have that energy phase. For the bloating, see above. It seems that at the very least the “half bad” bacteria in your gut now produce something useful like buteric acid or other things producing energy for your muscles. At the same time either that unknown source of energy causes brain fog or a starting immune response causes brain fog but oddly keeps energy in the muscles. If stool afterwards is normal I’d guess it’s the first. If you get either constipation or diarrhea afterwards I’d sooner point to the latter.

            Note added after writing the things below: the energy source could also be fructose.

            “If I am doing exercise, somehow that energy dissipates and afterwards I am more mentally focused.”
            => Does that meal contain a lot of fruit/fructose? Fructose is a good source of energy for the muscles but too high a combined fructose/glucose load causes the body to switch strongly towards converting fructose into fats. That’s a process consuming plenty of NADPH and as such *could* be a strong inflammatory process on the brain that cannot use fructose and only has very modest transfer of fat through the brain blood barrier. This may fit quite well what you described. If so, see advice before: reduce all of those contents and especially reduce high fructose contents.

            Feel free to further share thoughts 😉

          • Andy

            January 31, 2019 at 10:47 pm -

            Thank you forr all your explanations dejurgen. I think some of them fit in my case or they may fit, we don’t know actually. I can say that small meals , even 8 small meals per say two hours apart don’t help me at all, cause the food somhow pushes the other food constant in the lower gut. I feel best with 2 or maximum three meals per day with many hours apart from them (6 hours when three, 8 hours when two). The fruit I eat before exercise is maily figs, which I think is more glucose than fructose. Then I noticed that I get a lot more physical energy from sugar than from honey, so I guess is more like glucose vs fructose. One more thing , if I do IF for 24 hours and after that I eat a meal with lots of protein, moderate carb, low fat, let’s say: low fat hard goat cheese with wild salmon, two-three loves of bread and rucola and some peas, it takes much longer the food to digest, so the mental focus is there for a long time. But after a while it goes down of course and then my body screams for carbs and fiber. Or…an importannt thing: if after that meal I begin to burp a lot, at some point at the next meal I can eat again the same meal with high protein. But of course I cannot do this constantly. That would mean continous forced burping , which affects my esophagus. Also there other things that changed in my body before and after the FMT that i’d like to share, without of course pleading that all people with CFS should do it … i was for the moment the experiment rat to share these things :)) before the FMT I had very cold hand and feet even in summer, in the winter I was shivering and feeling cold even before having CFS. After the FMT I have very hot hands in the winter. I could go outside in a tshirt and would not feel the cold; before the FMT I had many nights that I did not sleep well, or I had an aggitatted sleep, after the FMT I sleep like I am completely drunk, knocked-out. And of course no more allergies, and I am talking real allergies. Now the negatives: before the FMT I could remeber anything, if someone told me to buy 20 things, i could remember any one of them, after the FMT if someone tells me to buy 5 things I write them down, so I could not forget; however if i eat very high protein, like the above example, i do remember well like before; after the FMT I no longer have the exact perception of time, without a clock I would not know if 2 hours or four hours have passed. Also I have another supposition , beside many others : in my family my maternal grandmother and my maternal grand grand mother both had epilepsy. I remember my grandmother had a very bad breath sometimes. I never had epilepsy or anything like that, but before the FMT I had a bad breath sometimes that stinked like my grandmothers. It might be that somehow the brain deliberately kills the good bacteria in the gut, even if it is the good one, not to have a seizure. That is why, maybe , now , after the FMT I have these racing thoughts I never had before the FMT. Maybe somehow my brain destroyed those bacteria, not to overactivate my brain. It is just a supposition. I never had any seizure, and I feel very very bad on a ketogenic diet, both before and after the FMT. But I think of giving CBD oil a try…also with the protein diet i told you i can perform very good sexually and also have morning erections. With the high carb diet I just can perform phisically, but a little bit zombie-like ! :))

          • Andy

            January 31, 2019 at 10:58 pm -

            I did the FMT from my cousin which is the son of my father’s brother. And in my fathers’ family all people lived more than 90 years and they were very phisically and also mentally fit with no neurological or any other diseases

        • dejurgen

          January 30, 2019 at 11:41 pm - Reply

          Let me rephrase “Fruit with high fructose to glucose ratio mostly ends up digested in the big gut.”

          I mean that large amounts of fruits high in fructose (in absolute amounts and compared to glucose) gets plenty of fructose spilling over to the large bowl. When people have fructose malabsorbtion this happens even with small amounts of fruit.

      • Andy

        January 30, 2019 at 9:22 pm - Reply

        An error of mine in the last phrase. This is what I wanted to say: with high carbs I CAN perform phisically, but I am not aroused and cannot perform sexually, cause I am not aroused.Sexually I can perform either high protein or high lactate which arouse me

    • dejurgen

      January 30, 2019 at 8:06 pm - Reply

      @Andy: “before the FMT I was highly allergic to pets, fact proven with tests. After the procedure I am no longer allergic to cats or dogs”

      -> While trying to get a nap I suddenly thought about this: Intestine parasites are superior at suppressing allergies. That’s well studied. In fact some anti-allergy therapies do use supposedly less dangerous species of parasites in order to reduce the strength of the immune response in order to reduce allergies in patients. There is some controversy surrounding this application I believe, but not about the fact that parasites produce chemical aimed at calming the immune response in order to be left alone.

      I believe there were even some trials of introducing less dangerous species of parasites into the gut in order to reduce auto-immune disease if I recall well. Recent discoveries point to a potential over-active immune system in ME patients.

      So I looked up the terms “parasites mood changes” in my search engine and had sufficient hits to say it is indeed a thing.

      You may have gotten some intestine parasites with the home made FMT on the side. Note that it’s perfectly possible to be in good health like your cousin whilst having parasites. Many young people in developing countries are in good health but most of them have intestine parasites.

      Maybe a stool test could see if you’ve got them. If there were, maybe parasite treatment could reduce the downsides you experience since your FMT while hopefully retaining most of the upsides. It’s hard to guess what gave most of the benefits. Note that most chemical anti parasite medicines are poisons that do affect your health too so for a former ME patient that poses its own set of risks. Papaya has been used as an alternative by some naturopaths with some success but it requires more then a little piece at the side of a meal. So it’s not totally harmless to get this application wright either. Done however under guidance of a professional I’d prefer the least harmful treatment and do a test before going to aggressive drugs with plenty of downsides.

      If this information would lead to significant discoveries or developments for you, please contact me by Healthrising forum message/mail. I am a member under dejurgen. I will only read this topic for another small amount of time.

    • Jessica

      January 31, 2019 at 4:45 pm - Reply

      Andy, thank you for sharing your journey. It is the first, first-hand account I have read of someone post fecal transplant. It was very illuminating. Makes one think of the Gut and Psychology Syndrome to see that someone else’s Microbiome had such an effect on your mental health.

      Does anyone know of any publications on how the last ten years of research into the Microbiome can be translated into treatment?

      I have only seen one reference, by Dr. Martin Blaser in his book Missing Microbes. He discusses doing enemas with probiotics to recolonize the lower gut, and he recommends several strains. Besides this reference, I have seen nothing beyond how to have a healthy microbiome in general.

  • Kristina

    January 30, 2019 at 9:00 am - Reply

    Interesting research. Not to take anything away from all the clinical research going on, I am taking a very different approach: “Break the Code of your Illness” by Isabelle Benarous (£15 e-book from her site) She is giving a 4 part webinar (Feb 6th-13th,20th,27th) hosted by The Stargate Experience. Get more info from Isabelle’s website about how and why we develop illnesses, etc. (http:// bioreprogramming.net) or http://www.thestargateexperience.com for wonderful multi-dimensional healing meditations and webinars. With Love.

  • Kristina

    January 30, 2019 at 10:07 am - Reply

    Our gut is a major chemist factory. It takes everything we eat, transforms it into all the nutrients our different organs need to keep us functioning. Our Western diets have largely destroyed the linings of our guts to the point where all manner of toxins get into our bloodstream and into our brain. L-Glutamine is a major helper in healing those holes in the gut lining. Dr josh Axe has talked about this on his website and recommends both L-Glutamine and Bone Broth to heal leaky gut syndrome. I have certainly found these helpful.

  • Kristina

    January 30, 2019 at 10:17 am - Reply

    Leaky Gut Syndrome
    Our gut is a major chemist factory. It takes everything we eat, transforms it into all the nutrients our different organs need to keep us functioning. Our Western diets have largely destroyed the linings of our guts to the point where all manner of toxins leak through and get into our bloodstream and into our brain. L-Glutamine is a major helper in healing those holes in the gut lining. Dr josh Axe has talked about this on his website and recommends both L-Glutamine and Bone Broth to heal leaky gut syndrome. I have certainly found these helpful.

  • TK

    January 30, 2019 at 10:02 pm - Reply

    I could imagine a possible future treatment via gut-brain connection. There are way too many unknown though. It may be possible to reduce brain inflammation through gut for instance, but we don’t know yet the exact pathways of how exertion results in brain inflammation and fatigue in CFS. Even the microglial activation may not be the sure thing.

    That said, I considered the effect of diet when I had a sudden improvement back in 2016. I went over everything to figure out if there was anything obvious that could’ve made the difference then. Though none was explanatory, changing my diet one month before to 100% brown rice was one of the factors. That fixed my high triglyceride and constipation like magic. And I guess it is possible that it also reduced the brain inflammation somehow and then the improvement faded away in subsequent months as my gut got used to the change.

    • dejurgen

      January 30, 2019 at 11:02 pm - Reply

      “Though none was explanatory, changing my diet one month before to 100% brown rice was one of the factors.”
      There are a few interesting factors to brown rice IMO.

      Would you have happened to eat brown rice with few other things as a side in the beginning and now eat a more “mixed” dish with brown rice plus more fats and proteins?
      Would the total caloric content be higher per meal now?
      Or would you have added plenty of vegetables with the rice making a single meal quite big in volume compared to the original changes?

  • Debbie Roberts

    January 31, 2019 at 8:24 pm - Reply

    I have fibromyalgia and none of the pain remedies have helped very much. I’d like to know when Copaxone might become available to us. Any idea?

  • dejurgen

    February 1, 2019 at 12:31 am - Reply

    @Andy: writing here because the very narrow column of text is inconvenient.

    From wikipedia, fructose malabsorption:
    “Even in healthy persons, however, only about 25–50 g of fructose per sitting can be properly absorbed.”

    from foodintolerances.org/fructose-content-of-food/ it can be seen that the ratio fructose to glucose is indeed slightly smaller then 1 in dried figs. However that still means 24gr of fructose and 26gr of glucose per serving of 100gr for a not that big a portion of figs. Also some food like banana, potatoes, grain… seem to have very low amounts of fructose and glucose but their starchy or equivalent components ultimately mainly break down to fructose or glucose. So it’s easy to go beyond the amount of fructose that even a healthy person can tolerate. Then some of it ends up in the large gut, easily causing trouble. Next to per serving limits there are also per day limits if fructose load is too high.

    “even 8 small meals per say two hours apart don’t help me at all, cause the food somhow pushes the other food constant in the lower gut.”
    -> I get something similar too. But I seem to be able to improve digestion a bit by eating smaller meals, probably allowing my stomach to better break down the food. Seems your stomach might be fine ;-).

    Still, the idea of choosing food that gets easily digested may still apply. Using digestive enzymes may help reduce average food content/volume in the belly too. I have good experience with eating fresh papaya fruit, better then with papain supplements. See the gut section of the forum for my topic on it. It should help break down times of food and as such reduce average food volume in the belly.

    If you surpass intake of easy too digest fructose by either eating too much of it or having a partial fructose intolerance reducing fructose or foods that break down to fructose may help with gas and gut symptoms. Gas takes plenty of volume too. Note that some other saccharides do worsen average uptake of fructose. Rice is good in digestion speed (lower average volume) and tends to break down far more into glucose.

    As to burping, yes that helps with me too but too much of it is not a real answer. Farting helps too.

    I too have a growing idea that my large bowel seems to reject all food if it represents a large bacterial load. Maybe it could be because of leaky gut meaning that a large bacterial load gets too much bacteria in the blood stream causing a strong immune reaction towards this food.

    As for feeling better when the food is still in the stomach: just after a meal one can feel more tired because the stomach draws a lot of blood. If one however does rest and blood supply is good the stomach will consume carbs amongst others. That can have a anti-inflammatory effect. Having the food finally digest in the gut has a pro inflammatory effect.

    Here is also an interesting link on fructose versus glucose articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/02/28/new-study-confirms-fructose-affects-your-brain-very-differently-than-glucose.aspx:
    “Across the limited regions of the brain they scanned … glucose significantly raised the level of neural activity for about 20 minutes following the infusion. Fructose had the opposite effect, causing activity in the same areas to drop and stay low for 20 minutes after the infusion.””

    I don’t claim fructose (ending up to much in the large gut) and FODMAPs have something to do with it, but much info seems to point to them so it may be worth taking a second look.

    • Andy

      February 1, 2019 at 10:17 pm - Reply

      I will try somewhat in a few changing in my diet, with ingesting very few fruits (fructose) or glucose. I will try to take energy only from complex carbs (rice and veggies) and see how that feels. I will let write if there are changes or any other reaction I found interesting or other supplement I might find.

  • Carlos Benita

    September 11, 2019 at 1:29 am - Reply

    I am a 51 year old female that just found out I have Parkinson’s, but I have been having signs of it for years, tremors, depression, body weakness. ECT. I honestly don’t think my doctor was reading the signs because of my gender and age. A few years ago I had my shoulder lock up on me and I was sent to a P.T since x-rays didn’t show any physical damage. My shaking was getting worse and I began falling. Only when my speech became so bad that it brought concern to my dentist was Parkinson’s even considered. He phoned my doctor with his concerns about my shaking and balance problems. By this time I was forgoing shots in the back of my neck for back and neck pain to which once again I was sent to a P.T (although x-rays showed no damage) I was told I had a few spurs which were most likely causing the pain. Here I was feeling like my whole body was falling apart and doctor could not find anything wrong, maybe in was all in my head? My doctor even seemed annoyed with me and things just kept progressing and I just kept it to myself, why bother going through testing and them finding nothing? Well, it was after my second P.T called my doctor about the weakness in my legs and arms, by this time I have developed a gait in my walk and I fell more frequently. Only then did my doctor send me to a specialist and it was found that I had Parkinson’s, and that I have had it for awhile. I think because I was a woman that my signs and symptoms weren’t taken seriously and therefor left untreated for so long,I was taking pramipexole dihydrochloride three times daily, I Was on carbidopa levodopa but only lasted 90 minutes then wore off.I found that none of the current medications worked effective for me.I got tired of using those medication so I decided to apply natural herbs formula that was prescribed to me by my second P.T, i purchase the herbal formula from totalcureherbsfoundation. com, There has been huge progression ever since I start the treatment plan which will last for 15 weeks usage.all the symptoms and sign has begin to disappear .