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Simmaron Publications on ME/CFS


Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients exhibit altered T cell metabolism and cytokine associations

Journal of Clinical Investigation J Clin Invest. 2020;130(3):1491-1505.


Related article by Mady Hornig  Can the light of immunometabolism cut through “brain fog”?



A comprehensive longitudinal analysis of ME/CFS patients enrolled in the Ampligen® (Rintatolimod) 511 open label trial from 2011-2019 at Sierra Internal Medicine

CG Gottschalk, Rush University, presentation at NIH Thinking the Future: A Workshop for Young/Early Career ME/CFS Investigators


Insights into myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome phenotypes through comprehensive metabolomics

Dorottya Nagy-Szakal, Dinesh K. Barupal, Bohyun Lee, Xiaoyu Che, Brent L. Williams, Ellie J. R. Kahn, Joy E. Ukaigwe, Lucinda Bateman, Nancy G. Klimas, Anthony L. Komaroff, Susan Levine, Jose G. Montoya, Daniel L. Peterson, Bruce Levin, Mady Hornig, Oliver Fiehn & W. Ian Lipkin
 Scientific Reports | (2018) 8:10056 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-28477-9


Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

M Hornig, Nagy-Szakal D, Williams BL, Mishra N, Che X, Lee B, Bateman L, Klimas NG, Komaroff AL, Levine S, Montoya JG, Peterson DL, K Jain, ML Eddy, WI Lipkin

Microbiome 2017 5:44 DOI: 10.1186/s40168-017-0261-y


Immune network analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in myalgic encephalomyelitis /chronic fatigue syndrome with atypical and classical presentations

M Hornig, CG Gottschalk, ML Eddy, X Che, JE Ukaigwe, DL Peterson and WI Lipkin.

Translational Psychiatry (2017) 7, e1080; doi:10.1038/tp.2017.44; published online 4 April 2017


Multi-Site Clinical Assessment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (MCAM): Design and Implementation of a Prospective/Retrospective Rolling Cohort Study

Unger ER, Lin JS, Tian H, Natelson BH, Lange G, Vu D, Blate M, Klimas NG, Balbin EG, Bateman L, Allen A, Lapp CW, Springs W, Kogelnik AM, Phan CC, Danver J, Podell RN, Fitzpatrick T, Peterson DL, Gottschalk CG, Rajeevan MS, MCAM Study Group
Am J Epidemiol (2017) 185 (8): 617-626. DOI: 17 March 2017


Cytokine network analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in myalgic encephalomyelitis/ chronic fatigue syndrome

M Hornig, G Gottschalk, DL Peterson, KK Knox, AF Schultz, ML Eddy, X Che and WI Lipkin

Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 31 March 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.29


“Our results indicate a markedly disturbed immune signature in the cerebrospinal fluid of cases that is consistent with immune activation in the central nervous system, and a shift toward an allergic or T helper type-2 pattern associated with autoimmunity.”


Cytokines in the Cerebrospinal Fluids of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

D. Peterson, E. W. Brenu, G. Gottschalk, S. Ramos, T. Nguyen, D. Staines, and S.Marshall-Gradisnik

Mediators of Inflammation, Volume 2015, Article ID 929720,

“This preliminary investigation suggests that perturbations in inflammatory cytokines in the CSF of CFS/ME patients may contribute to the neurological discrepancies observed in CFS/ME.”


Distinct plasma immune signatures in ME/CFS are present early in the course of illness

Mady Hornig, José G. Montoya, Nancy G. Klimas, Susan Levine, Donna Felsenstein, Lucinda Bateman, Daniel L. Peterson, C. Gunnar Gottschalk, Andrew F. Schultz, Xiaoyu Che, Meredith L. Eddy, Anthony L. Komaroff, W. Ian Lipkin

Science Advances 2015;1:e1400121  27 February 2015

“Analyses based on disease duration revealed that early ME/CFS cases had a prominent activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as dissociation of intercytokine regulatory networks. We found a stronger correlation of cytokine alterations with illness duration than with measures of illness severity, suggesting that the immunopathology of ME/CFS is not static. These findings have critical implications for discovery of interventional strategies and early diagnosis of ME/CFS.”


Findings from a clinical and laboratory database developed for discovery of pathogenic mechanisms in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

N.G. Klimas, G. Ironson, A. Carter, E. Balbin, L. Bateman, D. Felsenstein, S. Levine, D. Peterson, K. Chiu, A. Allen, K. Cunningham, C.G. Gottschalk, M. Fletcher, M. Hornig, C. Canning & A.L. Komaroff

Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior Volume 3, Issue 2, 2015

“Potential subgrouping strategies were suggested by these identified symptom clusters: sleep, neurocognitive, autonomic, inflammatory, neuroinflammatory, gastrointestinal and endocrine symptoms.”


Assessment of the Fc receptor CD16A of NK cells of CFS patients for potential to mediate ADCC activity

Isabel Silvestre, Daniel Peterson, Douglas Redelman, Stephen Anderson, Dorothy Hudig

Abstract: Journal of Immunology May 1, 2015 vol.194 (1 Supplement) 52.28


Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): Characteristics of Responders to Rintatolimod

David R Strayer, Bruce C Stouch, Staci R Stevens, Lucinda Bateman, Charles W Lapp, Daniel L Peterson, William A Carter, and William M Mitchell
Journal of Drug Research and Development,

Chronic fatigue syndrome and co-morbid and consequent conditions: evidence from a multi-site clinical epidemiology study

Lucinda Bateman, Salima Darakjy, Nancy Klimas, Daniel Peterson, Susan M. Levine, Ali Allen, Shane A. Carlson, Elizabeth Balbin, Gunnar Gottschalk & Dana March
Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior


The role of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluids of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)

Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik, Gunnar Gottschalk, Sandra Ramos, Ekua Brenu, Don Staines, Dan Peterson

Abstract: Cytokine, Volume 70, Issue 1, November 2014, SI: 2014 ICIS Abstract Issue


Altered Distribution of Lymphocyte Populations in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients

Isabel Barao, Ph.D., Daniel Peterson, M.D., Dorothy Hudig, Ph.D

Abstract:  Clinical Translational Research Infrastructure Network June 2014


No association found between the detection of either XMRV or polytropic MLV and chronic fatigue syndrome in a blinded, multi-site, prospective study by the establishment and use of the SolveCFS BioBank

David M Irlbeck, Suzanne D Vernon, K Kimberly McCleary, Lucinda Bateman, Nancy G Klimas, Charles W Lapp, Daniel L Peterson, James R Brown, Katja S Remlinger, David A Wilfret and Peter Gerondelis

BMC Research Notes 2014, 7:461


Persistent human herpesvirus-6 infection in patients with an inherited form of the virus.

Journal of Medical Virology, 25 July 2013, doi: 10.1002/jmv.23685

Pantry, S. N., Medveczky, M. M., Arbuckle, J. H., Luka, J., Montoya, J. G., Hu, J., Renne, R., Peterson, D., Pritchett, J. C., Ablashi, D. V. and Medveczky, P. G. (2013)

Abstract: In conclusion, the data presented here document that some individuals with CIHHV-6 are infected persistently with exogenous HHV-6 strains that lead to a wide range of neurological symptoms; the proposed name for this condition is inherited herpesvirus 6 syndrome or IHS.



A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Clinical Trial of the TLR-3 Agonist Rintatolimod in Severe Cases of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Ampligen)

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031334   Published: March 14, 2012

A Phase III prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing twice weekly IV rintatolimod versus placebo was conducted in 234 subjects with long-standing, debilitating CFS/ME at 12 sites. Rintatolimod produced objective improvement in ET and a reduction in CFS/ME related concomitant medication usage as well as other secondary outcomes. Read more.


Longitudinal investigation of natural killer cells and cytokines in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

Journal of Translational Medicine 2012, 10:88 doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-88 9 May 2012

Abstract: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is an etiologically unexplained disorder characterised by irregularities in various aspects of the immunological function. Presently, it is unknown whether these immunological changes remain consistent over time. This study investigates Natural Killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity, NK cell subsets (CD56brightCD16- and CD56dimCD16+) and cytokines, over the course of a12 month period in patients with CFS/ME…Read more


A Multicenter Blinded Analysis Indicates No Association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and either Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus or Polytropic Murine Leukemia Virus

mBio 3 (5): eo266-12. doi:10.1128/mBio.oo266-12.Sept 18, 2012

Abstract: The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection.  Read more…


Cytotoxic lymphocyte microRNAs as prospective biomarkers for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

Journal of Affective Disorders 2012 May 7. 7 May 2012

Abstract:  Immune dysfunction associated with a disease often has a molecular basis. A novel group of molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with suppression of translational processes involved in cellular development and proliferation, protein secretion, apoptosis, immune function and inflammatory processes. MicroRNAs may be implicated in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), where immune function is impaired. The objective of this study was to determine the association between miRNAs in cytotoxic cells and CFS/ME… Read more