All posts tagged Celebrex

The Pridgen Revolution? Dr. Pridgen on Bringing His Antiviral Approach to Fibromyalgia To Market

The Pridgen Revolution?

Almost three years ago, Dr. Pridgen threatened to turn the world of fibromyalgia treatment on its head. Few had connected fibromyalgia with viruses or even immune problems when Pridgen announced that a) FM is caused herpes simplex virus reactivation and b) that it could be treated with antivirals. Then he shocked a chronic fatigue syndrome community (ME/CFS) well acquainted with antivirals with his assertion that one antiviral drug was not enough.  (Pridgen believes the same process is going on in ME/CFS). Pridgen wasn’t done, though, instead of using the usual anti-herpes virus drugs he used an anti-inflammatory (Celebrex) that had antiviral properties as his second antiviral.

pridgen_skipPridgen was knocking down received wisdom at every turn. One would not have been remiss to think that he and his unusual protocol would, as other supposed cures have, disappear at some point, but he hasn’t.

Instead, touting his success with the drug combo, Pridgen embarked on the long and difficult task of bringing a new treatment to market. After joining up with a University of Alabama virologist, Dr. Carol Duffy, Pridgen formed a biotech company aptly named Innovative Med Concepts, hired an ex-Pfizer vice-president, put together a strong scientific board, raised the money for a Phase 2 trial, and embarked on toxicology testing.

The Phase II trial was successful enough for the drug combo to move forward. Then Innovate Med Concept got a break when FDA granted fast-track status to its IMC-1 formulation, allowing the drug combo to move forward as quickly as possible.  (Fast-track status is granted to serious diseases that have “substantial impact on day-to-day functioning.”)

Now comes the real work – raising money for some very, very expensive Phase 3 trials. It’s been about a year since we checked in. In an interview, I asked Pridgen how it was going.

The Pridgen Interview

The Phase II trial results were certainly quite good, but they weren’t spectacular.  How did the Phase II trial inform the Phase III trial and how will it be different?

We wanted to prove the concept first with a dose that we knew would be effective.  Additionally, we chose this lower dose, as it would allow us to begin without first performing the very expensive and time-consuming toxicology studies. We will be beginning the final 2 toxicology studies necessary to be Phase 3 ready, this month, and we expect to have these completed late this winter or in early spring 2017.

This was a year to prep for the big Phase III trials. How much money do you need to raise? Do you need to do one or two trials and how big does the trial or trials need to be? How much money do you need to raise?

Typically, two Phase 3 studies are required, the studies require 500-1000 patients per study, and these studies cost $25-50 million each.

One report suggested that some pharmaceutical companies have shown interest. Can you say anything about that?

drug-developmentWe have met with a dozen different pharmaceutical companies. All knew that we would be either forming a strategic partnership, or continuing the drug development ourselves once we near Phase 3 readiness. We will meet with these pharmaceutical companies to discuss a possible partnership at the upcoming JP Morgan meeting Jan 2017 in San Francisco.

We’ve seen a couple of high-profile Phase III trial failures recently. One may have been due to doctors misidentifying a side effect as something else and using a drug that interfered with the results. Another got excellent results in the Phase II trial but then didn’t meet its primary endpoint (but did meet some of its secondary endpoints) in the Phase III trial.  In another trial a very high placebo rate surfaced. What can you do to ensure that IMC-1 trial goes as well as possible?

We have actually been using a variant of this combination at my office for 2-3 years, so we are extremely confident in, not only its efficacy, but also know the combination is quite well tolerated and safe. Though providing the necessary optimal dose is incredibly time-consuming for the office staff, and complicated for the patients, we endure this hardship because of the dramatic improvement they experience.

Dr. Pridgen remains very, (very) confident in the effects of his protocol; he’s so confident that he anticipates raising the bar for the primary endpoint of his Phase 3 trials. Drugs have failed because they chose the wrong primary endpoint or too difficult of a primary endpoint, but Pridgen reports the study will use the most difficult primary endpoint to attain of any fibromyalgia trial to date:

Finally, because IMC-1 is so effective, we will use a primary endpoint that represents the highest bar ever used for any of the drugs previously studied for FM. We feel that this will negate to some degree the placebo effect.

We can see from studies and patient comments that the fibromyalgia population is pretty heterogeneous one. Some people do well on Lyrica – others do terribly. Low dose naltrexone works very well for some and others do poorly on it, etc., etc. The heterogeneity seen in the reactions to pain medications, in general, is pretty daunting. Is there any way you can target FM patients who are more likely to do well on the drug?

Again, Pridgen waxed confident in how efficacious this drug combination is. He believes his is the only protocol that gets at the source of fibromyalgia.

We believe IMC-1 is targeting the possible cause of fibromyalgia, not just modifying the body’s perception of pain.

Emedicine lists four antivirals (Famvir, Valtrex, Acyclovir, Penciclovir) used to treat herpes simplex infections. You’ve found that you need to add Celebrex to Famvir to get the best results in FM. Why do you think this is?

Penciclovir is not available in the PO form because it is not well absorbed, so it is a better topical agent.  Actually, Famvir turns into the active form, penciclovir, once it is acted on by human and viral enzymes. Celebrex is effective as an antiviral also. Herpes viruses are known to up-regulate the Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes to maximize viral activation. Though Celebrex (celecoxib) is known as a Cox-2 inhibitor, it actually has substantial Cox-1 inhibition.

viral-attack-cfsAre the herpes simplex infections harder in FM harder to get at than in other diseases? Do you need to reach into the central nervous system?

Essentially all adults have HSV-1, but we believe there is an immune defect in place in some patients, which results in an inability to force the virus into dormancy after an acute infection. In other words, patients with FM, have an ongoing HSV-1 infection, which we feel results in a chronic stress response. The meds can act centrally, however, the virus lives in the Trigeminal, and Nodose ganglia which are intracranial, but technically not in the CNS. The dorsal sacral root ganglia are the third major site (in the pelvis) where the virus resides.

Note: The herpes virus is known to hide out all three of these ganglia or cell bodies.

  • Trigeminal ganglia – is the largest and most complex of the 12 cranial nerves. The trigeminal ganglia provides sensations to the face and other parts of the head. It also sends signals that allow us to chew and even helps with balance. People with trigeminal neuralgia can experience high levels of pain when doing things like brushing their teeth or putting on makeup.
  • Nodose ganglia – are sensory ganglia or nerve cell bodies of the vagus nerve that are found near the top of the spine..
  • Dorsal sacral root ganglia – are associated with vertebrae in the pelvic area. The nerves emanating from them impact all areas of gut and pelvic functioning. In between bouts of genital herpes virus reactivation, the herpes simplex virus hides in these ganglia.

Like the other herpesviruses, almost everyone is infected with HSV-1, and when reactivated these infections can be pretty harmful. They’ve been shown to cause gastrointestinal and esophageal disorders, acute viral encephalitis, and approximately 25% of all genital herpes infections. Fibromyalgia is a bit different; it causes widespread pain, fatigue, sleep and sometimes mood problems as well as other symptoms- and is thought more of as a central nervous system disorder than anything else. Can you explain what the herpes simplex virus is doing differently in FM to cause this extraordinary range of symptoms?

The ongoing stress response affects nearly every system in the body. The immune response to this stress response over time affects sleep, mood, anxiety, thyroid, adrenal function, GI tract, HA’s and much more.

Dr. Duffy was reportedly writing up a paper on her gut findings. Can you tell us that the status of that is?

We have one last sample (of 60 total) to obtain to complete the study.

(At a conference Duffy was reported to find HSV-1 in 100% of FM gut biopsies and a protein found only in cells that are actively infected with HSV-1 in 80% of patients.)

With another year under your belt have you learned anything new treating FM using Famvir and Celebrex?

We have found that anything that was previously part of the functional somatic syndrome will improve on this treatment. At the risk of sounding like a snake oil salesman, we have patients who have chronic non-seasonal sinusitis, HA’s, brain fog, and even libido issues who swear by IMC-1.

Dosing – I also asked Dr. Pridgen about dosing information. He replied that the dosing information has to be proprietary right now. This is because pharmaceutical companies or other funding sources would not back a product composed of already approved drugs if the dosages were put in the public realm. Given the enormous costs of the Phase 3 trials, Pridgen’s drug combo would never make it to market without their backing.

That means FM patients will have to wait before Dr. Pridgen publicly reports on the appropriate dose. For many people this conversation is moot – their doctors would not prescribe antivirals now anyway. People seeing Dr. Pridgen or people seeing doctors in touch with Dr. Pridgen will obviously get the right doses.

If the trials are successful and the FDA approves the IMC-1 formulation everyone should be able to get a shot at these drugs.

Can you give us a timeline regarding the Phase III trial(s)?

They will start next year.

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For more on Dr. Pridgen’s antiviral approach to fibromyalgia:

Big Antiviral Trial Could Usher in New Treatment Era for Fibromyalgia

 A New Approach to Fibromyalgia

Infections are a common trigger for fibromyalgia (FM), and fibromyalgia patients are experience many ‘sickness behavior’ symptoms, but we haven’t usually associated FM with viruses or immune system problems.

woman questioning

So it’s going to be Fibromyalgia that gets the really big antiviral trial ….

That’s been changing  recently. A immune biomarker has been proposed. Small fiber neuropathy – possibly caused by immune dysregulation – has been found. Dr. Dantini has been treating FM with antivirals for years.  The immune system’s starting to get some respect in FM.

Now, in a surprising twist, it’s going to be fibromyalgia rather than chronic fatigue syndrome, that’s getting the big, placebo controlled, double-blinded multi-center antiviral trial.

Last year we heard that Dr. William Pridgen in  Alabama was getting his ducks in a row for a major antiviral trial. Four weeks ago in an email exchange he confirmed that the money – $3.3 million dollars – all gathered from ‘angel investors’ is in  hand, and the four-month 143 patient trial began  in early October.

Pridgen’s Innovative Med Concepts biotech startup is producing the study.

A Different Path

The pathways researchers and doctors take to get to disorders like FM or chronic fatigue syndrome are nothing but diverse, and it’s worth taking a look at how Dr. Pridgen, a surgeon, came to fibromyalgia. (Dr. Julia Newton’s pathway to ME/CFS was through elderly people experiencing dizziness and, to her surprise, a great deal of fatigue.) Dr. Pridgen’s pathway to fibromyalgia was through the gut.

Pridgen saw a pattern emerge in his  treatment of thousands of patients with chronic gastrointestinal issues that intrigued him. A patient would get better, but then experience a stressful event that would send him/her back into the soup.  They would get better, but during the next relapse they would stay sick longer and their recovery period would be shorter. Eventually they would be sick all the time.

virus

Shorter and shorter relapses over time in his patients lead Pridgen to conclude that a virus must be involved.

The problem, he thought, had to be some sort of pathogen that was steadily increasing with every recurrence. Giving his patients antivirals helped, but problems remained. Then he found that adding an anti-inflammatory (which also had anti-viral properties) reduced their fatigue, gastrointestinal complaints, depression and anxiety markedly and improved their energy.

An observational study indicating that the combination drug approach had a 90% ‘efficacy rate’ led Pridgen to start a company, enlist investors and create the large treatment trial.

Pridgen’s theory fits glove and hand with several other fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome theories. As with Van Elzakkers’ vagus nerve infection theory for ME/CFS, Pridgen’s theory begins with a nerve loving virus that takes up residence – for life – in nerves in the sensory ganglia found across the body.

Instead of HHV6 or EBV Pridgen believes herpes simplex viruses, are the key in FM/ME/CFS. Other than a 1993 theory proposing herpes simplex virus was at play in ME/CFS, interest has been scanty. HSV-1’s ability to affect many of the genes and gene pathways suspected of playing a role in nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome and autism, however, lead one researcher to propose it could play a role in all of them.

HSV-1 has been found in the esophagus, stomach and duodenum of the gastrointestinal system. In fact, HSV-1 was proposed to  cause ‘recurrent functional gastrointestinal disorders’ such as IBS, as far back as 1996.

Pridgen’s patent application indicates that he believes that stressors and  peptides and hormones released by the sympathetic nervous system and HPA axis  set the stage for herpes simplex-1 reactivation. Pridgen proposes that repeated HSV reactivation can  kill the sensory nerve cells ( small fiber neuropathy?) and destroy part of the nerve ganglion.  (Stress induced HSV-1 reactivation has been documented in laboratory animal studies.)

Once  these neurons and ganglia are damaged, Pridgen believes they send out signals that ultimately muck up the pain processing centers in the central nervous system. The over-generation of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, Substance P, serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) involved in this process then causes central sensitization.

Antiviral Plus

Pridgen proposes to stop the viral reactivation and the central sensitization with antivirals; an approach that’s been tried before in chronic fatigue syndrome, but not in the way Pridgen’s doing it.

connections

Are two ‘antivirals’ better than one? We’ll find out sometime next year.

One of Pridgen’s patent applications suggests that one of his unique insights has been to combine valacyclovir (valtrex) with an anti-inflammatory, Celecoxib (Celebrex) that has antiviral properties.  Other combinations are being tested and Pridgen stated  they have not released the make-up of IMC formulation used in the trial. It’s not clear, then, what drugs at what doses were used in the study or which will prove most effective. 

Celexcoxib (Celebrex) is a non-steroidal antinflammatory (NSAID) COX-2 inhibitor usually used  in the treatment of osteoarthritisrheumatoid arthritisacute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms. It down regulates the activity of inflammation producing  cells.

Pridgen proposes that the  two drugs hit the virus at different stages of its life-cycle. Pummeling the virus with that one-two punch, he believes, will finally stop the virus from reactivating.

Pridgen and Duffy are looking for herpes simplex virus, but other herpes viruses could be affected by this treatment. We won’t know if they are until further studies are done.

Inflammation Gone Awry

Pridgen and his partner, molecular virologist, Carol Duffy will also attempt to develop a diagnostic test for fibromyalgia using cytokine arrays they believe will document high levels of  pro-inflammatory cytokines and low levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Like VanElzakker, Pridgen believes the body is over-reacting to the virus.

“It’s basically exaggerating its reaction to the virus. Any little stress reactivates the virus, and, rather than the body saying, ‘Oh, this is just a virus I’ve been living with this since I was five,’ the body keeps saying, ‘Oh, my God,’ and throws on all this inflammation, and that gives these people this pain.”

“There is a theory that all pain, one way or another, is inflammation,” Duffy says. “It’s inflammation gone awry.”

Not just Fibromyalgia

Pridgen and Duffy have their eyes on more than Fibromyalgia.  Pridgen’s provisional patent proposes this treatment will work for chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain, chronic headache, chronic neck pain, chronic back pain, chronic depression, chronic clinical anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), brain fog, cognitive dysfunction and chronic interstitial cystitis.

Celebrex – The Antiviral?

We don’t hear anything about Celecoxib as a virus fighter in ME/CFS, but some evidence suggests it could be efficacious against herpes simplex virus. The ability of COX-2 inhibitors to decrease prostaglandin production is believed to push the immune system towards a Th1 (antiviral) response and away from the Th2 response often found in ME/CFS.

stop sign

Pridgen believes Celexicob’s antiviral properties, in concert with Valtrex, will knock down the herpes viruses causing FM and ME/CFS

Celebrex was shown to reduce stress induced herpes virus reactivation in the nervous systems of mice.  Another study found that reactivation of HSV-1 in mice was associated with upregulation of COX-2 gene expression in their nerve ganglia.  HHV-6 can also induce COX-2 expression.  Both COX-1 and COX-2 are needed for viral replication.

(One mother found that VIOXX (now off the market) reduced her daughters IL-6 levels and eliminated the ‘panic attacks’  she’d experienced following a central nervous system infection.)

(Aspirin and flavanoids, vitamin E and fish oils also inhibit COX-2. The efficacy some ME/CFS patients experience from using omega-3 fatty acids could be due to antiviral effects.)

Tissue Biopsies

Along with treating the virus, Pridgen and his partner, molecular virologist Carol Duffy, will be using PCR to test for the virus, not in the blood, but in gut tissue samples.

One of the most intriguing aspects of the Pridgen-Duffy study is the search for HSV-1, not in the blood, but in the tissues. We know the Chronic Fatigue Initiative’s Pathogen study  failed to find evidence of viral infection in the blood. Now, Pridgen and Duffy are testing gut samples for herpes virus simplex in their study.

First PCR will be used to search for herpesviruses in both the control and FM gut samples. Then antibodies will be used to determine if an active infection is present.  In subsequent studies, electron microscopy will look for the herpesviruses particles themselves.

In preliminary studies 18/19 fibromyalgia patients with gut issues contained herpes simplex virus DNA in their gut tissues. No other herpesviruses were found. Immunoblot testing indicated that an active infection was present in eight of nine positive biopises.

Dr. Pridgen reported in an email they are still trying to determine  the optimum doses and cautioned everyone to wait until the results of the phase three trial are done before starting this treatment.  He also stated he feels  they are ‘very close’ to helping many people with this condition.  The results of trial will be released mid-year, 2014. 

Conclusion

breakthrough arrow

A successful trial could usher in a new era of treatment for fibromyalgia and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome

Pridgen and Duffy’s big multi-center antiviral trial in Fibromyalgia is nothing if not exciting in its scope and approach. Pridgen’s ability to come up with over $3,000,000 in startup funding suggests he and Duffy have got some solid data backing their trial up. .

If they results are positive, Pridgen and Duffy could usher in an entirely new way of treating both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.