All posts tagged Lyme

Is Chronic Lyme Disease – Not Lyme Disease At All?

Is Chronic Lyme Disease (CLD) actually Lyme disease? That’s one of the questions asked during the Simmaron Research Foundation’s Patient Day in September.

It was a full room in beautiful Incline Village sitting on the northern shore of Lake Tahoe in Nevada. Emily Taylor of SMCI came up from LA, Gunnar took time off from medical school. Maureen Hanson and Mady Hornig flew over from the East Coast; Dr. Konstance Knox from the Midwest. The locals included Anita Patton, Courtney Miller, Eric Johnson, and, of course, there was Dr. Peterson.

chronic lyme disease

Why some people remain ill after being treated for Lyme disease is a vexing question

Why some people who have been treated for Lyme disease remain ill is a knotty question, and it has pertinence for chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Both in Lyme disease and chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) many people become and then remain ill after an infection.  Why that happens is a mystery.

Some people think that chronic Lyme disease is simply another subset of chronic fatigue syndrome; that the Borrelia burgdorfii infection which ticked off chronic Lyme disease is no different from the herpesvirus or enteroviral or  other infection that just happened to send ME/CFS patients’ systems into a tailspin. The idea is that it’s not the infection, it’s the fact that an infection occurred.  That’s what the Dubbo and other studies which have shown that ME/CFS can be triggered by a large of number of pathogens suggest.

Others believe that the Borrelia infection is still there, deeply hidden, but grinding away in the chronically ill.

No one knows, but the idea that different pathogens are causing similar issues in ME/CFS and Lyme is belied by a study which found significantly different proteins in the cerebral spinal fluid of ME/CFS and Lyme disease.

Dr. Konstance Knox believes the two diseases may, in fact, be very different. In her Simmaron Patient Day presentation, she suggests a pathogen may be present in chronically ill Lyme disease patients but not the Borrelia bacteria; she believes that a tick-borne virus called the Powassan Deer Tick virus, which at its worst is fully as dangerous as Borrelia or more, may be doing its work.

 The Powassan Deer Tick Virus

The Powassan Tick-borne virus was first isolated from a person from Powassan, Canada in 1958.  (Powassan, like Lyme, Connecticut, is another small town that just happened to get stuck with the name of a disease.) The Powassan virus is a Flavivirus related to such nasties as Zika, Dengue, West Nile Virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). All these viruses can cause brain swelling (encephalitis).

The scariest thing about the  Powassan virus is how quickly it can be transmitted. Because the Borrelia bacteria that causes Lyme is carried in the stomach of a tick, the tick has to feed for quite a while before the bacteria actually makes into humans. Because the Powassan virus, on the other hand, is carried in the saliva of the deer tick, it takes a mere 15 minutes or so for it to jump from a feeding tick into your bloodstream. A Powassan infected tick can jump on, feed for a bit – transmit the virus – and then jump off, without you ever knowing it.  Since ticks are so small and POWV transmission so rapid, few patients with Powassan encephalitis recall their tick bites.

Powassan virus symptoms - CDC

Most cases of Powassan virus infection are mild but at its worst a Powassan virus infection rivals Lyme disease in its severity

Most people infected with Powassan Virus (POWV) experience flu-like symptoms such as headache, sore throat, drowsiness and disorientation.  If the infection spreads to the brain, the virus can cause everything from lethargy, high fevers, vomiting, respiratory problems and difficulty speaking to paralysis, seizures, coma and even death.

Powassan-triggered encephalitis is accompanied by the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes into the brain and the widespread destruction of neurons in the motor areas of the brainstem (affecting movement), the cerebellum, basal ganglia (potentially affecting movement again) and the thalamus. MRI’s pick up only non-specific abnormalities and thus are not diagnostic but suggest that brainstem may be particularly effected.

Studies on Powassan infections are rare but some suggest that no less than fifty percent of Powassan survivors may be left with permanent neurological problems including partial paralysis, headaches, memory impairment and/or paralysis of the eye muscles.

A 2015 paper presenting eight verified cases of neuroinvasive Powassan virus infection in New England bore this out. Two of the patients died, four fairly quickly recovered and two exhibited from medium to long-term problems.  One 21 year old man who entered the hospital with vomiting, fever and confusion was given methylprednisolone and IVIG. He improved over time and left the hospital alert, oriented, and “speaking in short sentences”. He was unable to return to work for seven months.  Fifteen months later, a 52 year old man still had persistent headaches as well as problems with motor functioning and coordination.

Because surveillance of the Powassan virus has been poor, it’s difficult to estimate its true incidence in humans.  Luckily, far more ticks carry the Borrelia bacteria (20-50% of ticks in endemic areas) than carry the Powassan virus (1-10%). Unluckily, the Powassan virus appears to be spreading.

After Powassan virus caused the sudden death of a Massachusetts woman, a tick surveillance program found from 0-16% of ticks in a given area carried the virus. A Canadian survey suggested that 3% of residents of Ontario province in Canada had been exposed to the virus. These surveys suggest far more people have been exposed to the virus than suspected. Most undoubtedly experienced symptoms similar to those of a mild cold.  Others who were more seriously affected probably never got tested for Powassan.

Much of what we know about the Powassan virus comes from study of a closely related virus in the Europe and Asia called Tick-borne encephalitis virus which causes thousands of neurological illnesses every year.  Studies on the Powassan were almost non-existent until around 2011 when the research started picking up. Powassan virus is considered a “rare but severe neuroinvasive disease“.

Could Chronic Lyme Disease Caused by the Powassan Virus?

Dr. Konstance Knox,       Coppe Lab

Simmaron Scientific Board member and collaborator, Konnie Knox has been leading a recent surge in research publications on the Powassan virus. Her recent survey of the Ixoides scapularis ticks known to carry Lyme disease and Powassan virus in Wisconsin found that 5% carried the Powassan virus. Rather ominously half of the ticks carrying Lyme disease also carried the Powassan virus.

With Lyme disease fairly common in Wisconsin (@ 187 cases/100,000)  Knox’s finding strongly suggested that Powassan infections were being under-reported in Wisconsin.  (If Knox’s findings are validated, then Powassan virus infections probably occur on the order of at 90 cases per 100,000 in Wisconsin, or as much as 5400 cases per year.)

Next, Knox tested 95 patients seen at a clinic for possible Lyme disease over four months in 2015 in northern Wisconsin.  Lyme disease,  POWV, West Nile virus (WNV), Tick-borne encephalitis virus, V, yellow fever virus, dengue viruses 1–4, and Japanese encephalitis virus were tested for.

Powassan virus Lyme disease

Could chronic Lyme disease actually be a Powassan virus infection?

Serologic evidence of POWV infection was present in 10% of the patients and confirmed in 3% of them by other testing.  Almost half of the patients with an acute Borrelia infection were infected with the Powassan virus. When the patients with a validated Powassan infection were tested, 87% were also found to be infected with Lyme disease. None, fortunately, had signs of a neuroinvasive disease.

The fact that 10% of Lyme patients come down with Chronic Lyme Disease and, Knox’s findings suggest that about 10% of patients with Lyme disease may also be infected with the Powassan Virus, is of course, more than intriguing.

Could chronic Lyme disease or ME/CFS patients be suffering from a unusual, untreated infection? Knox’s present research into ME/CFS patients could help answer that question. Knox will be testing several hundred ME/CFS patients for evidence of Lyme Disease, Powassan virus, and other tick and insect-borne diseases.

Lyme Disease Or ?

  • Konstance Knox who owns a diagnostic laboratory, noted that Lyme testing has improved and that good Lyme testing is not impossible. (She liked the CDC protocol which calls for a two-step testing process.)  She’s confident in the results from her lab which uses machine testing rather than subjective human testing to assess the test results.

She noted that one of the biggest problems with Lyme diagnosis is getting tested too early. Because it takes about four weeks for the Lyme immune factors to show up in the blood, the tests aren’t accurate until you’ve been infected for about a month.

The Lyme diagnosis question, of course, is a big one.  Get it wrong, as the story of one ME/CFS patient in the audience indicated, and you could be in for years of expensive treatments which leave you worse off.  After a diagnosis based on neurological and non-specific symptoms, a CD 57 test, and a negative Western blot test from Igenex, this patient had been on and off antibiotics for about five years. Talking to her later she said she’d improved tremendously on antibiotics at times, but the treatment ultimately failed and left her worse off than ever. (She suspected that the anti-inflammatory effects of the antibiotics had temporarily helped.)

She would be in the chronic Lyme disease category except for the fact that she never have had Lyme disease in the first place. In fact, her symptoms didn’t really fit. She’d marveled at other “Lyme patients” who were able to exercise. Despite the fact that she’d visited a clinic that treated complex, chronic diseases, she didn’t know that her main symptom – post-exertional malaise – was the defining characteristic of ME/CFS until she visited an ME/CFS clinic last year.

Knox suggested that a lot of putative “Lyme” patients may not be Lyme patients at all. She’s found, for instance, a very low incidence of Lyme disease in Dr. Peterson’s patients, many of whom probably hail from the Western United States. She did, however, find evidence of a tick borne virus in about 11% of a 200 patient sample.

Conclusion

People who still suffer from the symptoms of Lyme disease after being appropriately treated for it are a medical mystery.  Some doctors believe the Lyme bacteria is still present. Others believe that the Lyme infection may have triggered an ME/CFS-like condition. Simmaron Research Foundation Board member and collaborator, Dr. Konstance Knox, believes some people with chronic Lyme disease may be suffering from an unidentified Powassan virus infection transmitted by the same tick.

Powassan virus is a poorly studied virus that can be quickly transmitted by ticks. While most people probably pass off the virus quickly, a neuroinvasive infection can cause serious symptoms including paralysis, stroke, coma and even death.

Dr. Konstance Knox’s studies suggest that Powassan virus is often present in ticks harboring the Borrelia bacteria that causes Lyme disease, and that about 10% of Lyme disease patients have been exposed to the virus. That’s an intriguing finding given that about 10% of Lyme patients come down with chronic Lyme disease.

Dr. Knox is currently studying the incidence of the Lyme disease bacteria, Powassan virus and other insect vectors in Dr. Peterson’s chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients. Stay tuned…

 

Ian Lipkin: Three to Five Years* to Solve Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

December 26, 2015

Ian Lipkin flew to Lake Tahoe this December to fundraise for work he’s doing with the Simmaron Research Foundation. In a talk covering his virus hunting career, the threat of pathogens to humanity, and his work with chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), he dropped a bombshell: he stated that he believes it’s possible to solve ME/CFS in three to five years. 

On that hopeful note, let’s learn more about Dr. Lipkin, his work, and his collaborations with Simmaron.

Dr. Peterson’s Introduction

Lipkin’s Columbia Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) has established close ties with the Simmaron Research Foundation. Only a couple of months before, his chief collaborator, Mady Hornig (and Simmaron Scientific Advisory Board member) had given a talk.  Now Ian Lipkin was here.

Dr. Peterson started his introduction of Ian Lipkin by noting that he’d known him since they crossed paths in the 1980’s when Dr. Peterson sent him patients suffering from HIV/AIDS.

Lipkin has changed the ways researchers identify pathogens

Lipkin has changed the ways researchers identify pathogens

Ian Lipkin began a new era in pathogen detection when he became the first researcher to isolate a virus (Borna disease virus) using genetics.  He identified the West Nile Virus that had throw New York City into a panic, developed technologies to identify SARS and then hand carried 10,000 test kits to Beijing at the height of the outbreak. He most recently discovered a highly dangerous virus that recently jumped into humans called MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus).

Lipkin has pioneered many technological breakthroughs in finding pathogens including the use of MassTag-PCR, the GreeneChip Diagnostic, and High Throughput Sequencing. His latest breakthrough is the development of a new screening technique that enhances researchers ability to find viruses 10,000 fold.

Called the top virus hunter in the world, Ian Lipkin runs the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia, and is the director of the Center for Research in Diagnostics and Discovery (CRDD) at the NIH. He also worked closely with Steven Soderbergh on his film Contagion.

Ian Lipkin Talks

Who says brilliant scientists can’t be a hoot to listen to as well? Ian Lipkin’s presentation was both enlightening and at times hilarious. Exhibiting a wry sense of humor, Lipkin poked fun at himself and virtually everyone around him.

The last time he was in Lake Tahoe, he said, was in 1984 and he hearkened back to the HIV/AIDS patients Dr. Peterson sent him in the early 1980’s.

“When you come to a fork in the road – take it!”

He stated the guiding principle in the search for pathogens could be summed up by the great Yogi Berra’s adage “When you come to a fork in the road – take it!”.

HIV/AIDS was the beginning of many changes. Even after the medical community knew it was being passed in the blood it still took them 2 1/2 years to find it. (In a Discover interview,  Lipkin noted that he ran the first clinic in San Francisco that would treat HIV/AIDS (then called GRID) patients with neurological problems. Note an iconoclastic element to Lipkin that showed up early in his career: he was willing to see patients others wouldn’t. Check out Lipkin’s fascinating story of how HIV/AIDS lead to him to study infectious diseases.)

Lipkin-chronic-fatigue-syndrome

Lipkin first showed a willingness to support underserved groups early in the HIV/AIDS epidemic

Lipkin then worked on a virus which demonstrated the effects a persistent viral infection can have on the central nervous system.

Next, in another story with possible overtones for chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), he investigated patients who’d come down with what appeared to be a mysterious psychiatric disorder. It took him two years but using a new method involving genetic cloning he uncovered the Borna disease virus. It was the first virus discovered using genetic means.

The Borna virus discovery was a game-changer for pathogen community. Jump forward thirty years(after it took the medical community almost three years to find HIV, and viruses are being discovered using molecular means every week. The Center for Infection and Immunity itself discovered 700 new viruses from 2009-2015.

Lipkin was aware of and interested in ME/CFS in the eighties but there was no money. In 1999 he and Britta Evangaard found no evidence of the Borna disease virus in ME/CFS. From there we jump forward to 2010 when NIH Director Francis Collins tasked Lipkin to determine if a retrovirus, XMRV, was causing ME/CFS. XMRV turned out to be a laboratory artifact, and the paper was retracted – something Lipkin said was not all that unusual in science. (He emphasized that he and Dr. Peterson were very careful to put out studies that would stand the test of time.)

The XMRV discovery tanked but proved to be a boon for ME/CFS by heightening the attention around it. Lipkin had kept an eye on ME/CFS for years and after being hired by the Chronic Fatigue Initiative to take it on, he was back in a big way.

In the next portion of his talk he turned to viruses and humans.

Viruses and Humans

How are most viruses getting into humans? From animals. After it’s jump from primates to humans, HIV is, of course, the most familiar example, but viruses are also escaping from bats, birds, pigs, rodents, insects and even camels into humans.

A sea change in the viral field occurred in 1999 when a mosquito-borne virus – the West Nile Virus – had the audacity to attack the residents of the New York City. Lipkin shifted his work from the West to East coasts to search for the virus and ultimately identified it. As the outbreak spread, it got the attention of Senator Joesph Lieberman who sponsored the first big initiative to learn how viruses spread from animals to humans. Politicians, Lipkin noted, can be important allies.

Infections

Most pathogens have yet to be identified by humans.

New York City may be an ideal transit stop for new viruses. Twenty-one million passengers traveling to and from 72 countries pass through New York city airports every year. Animal products including bushmeat – all potentially contaminated with nasty viruses – pour into New York City regularly.

Many more viruses are undiscovered than have been discovered. A survey of one species of bats found fifty-five viruses, fifty of which were new to science. Lipkin estimated 320,000 viruses were still unknown and they’re bumping up against humans all the time. Lipkin next demonstrated how quickly they can jump from animals into humans.

Bats –  Called to investigate an ill Saudi Arabian man (with four wives), he uncovered a new virus called MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) similar to those found in bats. (Asked if there were any bats in the area, he was told no. The next video showed bats flying every which way in the area :)). If the bats weren’t biting the humans, though, how was the bat virus jumping into people?

Lipkin found MERS was present in about 75% of the camels in the country. Further research indicated that MERS jumped into camels in the 1990’s, and then rapidly escaped into humans around 2010.

MERS

Since its escape into humans around 2010 MERS has spread to 26 countries.

MERS is not particularly easy to transmit but once it gets transmitted, watch out. Death rates are high. It took just one Saudi Arabian to spread MERS to South Korea this year where it killed several dozen people, put several thousand others into quarantine and basically threw the country into a panic. Schools were closed, tourists stopped coming, and parts of the economy slumped as South Korea fought off the virus. It has since been found in 26 countries. It’s the kind of virus that keeps public health officials up at night.

It’s not surprising that Lipkin is wary of pathogens. He noted that he rarely shakes hands but darting a glance at Dr. Peterson said he’d made an exception that evening.

(If you haven’t seen Steven Soderbergh film “Contagion” and can handle apocalyptic scenario’s you might want to give it a try. Lipkin consulted extensively on the movie which involved a worst-case scenario of a virus wiping out much of humanity. The film was praised for its scientific accuracy. (Spoiler alert – we do survive in the end :)).

Ticks –  Coming closer to home Lipkin believes chronic Lyme patients who are not recovering from antibiotics may have gotten another infection from the ticks. He found that over 70% of the Ixodes scapularis ticks associated with Lyme disease carried at least one pathogen and 30% carried more than one in New York. Last year he identified a rhabdovirus (Long Island tick rhabdovirus) new not just to ticks but to science itself. A small survey suggested that 15% of residents may carry antibodies to the virus.

Rats– Lipkin’s  study of New York City’s second most common resident – rats – revealed they carried an amazing array of pathogens including Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, and Salmonella enterica, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis, Leptospira interrogans, and Seoul hantavirus.

In one of his many asides (did you know he loves Sinatra?) Lipkin referred to the hamburger and French fries lunch that he and Peterson  usually have. (“Do as we say not as we do” he said). How does Lipkin reportedly like his meat? “Burn it” he tells the waiter. The man is taking no chances – he knows too much.

Infection and Disease

timing-infections-lipkin

The timing of an infection is just one of many factors that determine the effects it will have.

A pathogen is just one of the players, however, in a vast swirl of factors which ultimately determines whether one is going to have a chronic illness. Timing, for instance, is a key factor.

If you expose a mouse to a pathogen at one stage of pregnancy, it’ll stop moving around its cage. If you expose the same mouse to the same pathogen later in pregnancy, it will run round and around its cage unceasingly.

A large autism study underscored the complex role timing plays in humans. The 120,000 person autism birth cohort study found that if a mother comes down with a fever after the first trimester, her chances of giving birth to a son with autism go up three-fold.  If she treats the fever with acetaminophen, her chances of giving birth to an autistic child drop significantly.  If she takes acetaminophen for any other problem than a fever, her risk of giving birth to an autistic child goes up again.

Three to Five Years – An ME/CFS Timeline

How does all this relate to ME/CFS? Likpin cited the findings of their work to date.

  • The suspected pathogens don’t appear to be the problem (the CII is reportedly looking further at herpesviruses.)
  • Evidence suggests altered microbiomes (gut flora) are present
  • Striking differences in immune expression between shorter and longer duration patients suggest profound immune changes have occurred
  • Preliminary evidence suggests that levels “X” and “Y” metabolites and, at least, one immune protein are significantly altered in ME/CFS. (Lipkin embargoed this information pending publication of the paper. One of them is a shocker.)

Lipkin emphasized, though, that ME/CFS is not a one-size fits all disease. For instance, it’s possible that fungi may be a problem for some patients. That’s an intriguing idea given the recent fungi funding in Alzheimer’s disease published in Nature.

Lipkin timeline chronic fatigue syndrome

Lipkin’s timeline for solving ME/CFS given enough resources – a mere three to five years.

Then Lipkin made his bold declaration “We’re going to solve this in three to five years”. It came with a significant proviso “provided the resources are made available” but indicated that he believes ME/CFS is a mystery that can be cracked fairly quickly.  That sounds really fast, but Lipkin’s time-frame is not that far off from Ronald Davis’s 5-10 year time-frame (provided he gets the resources as well.) (or Dr. Montoya’s).

These eminent researchers believe that given the technology present today we could understand ME/CFS fairly quickly – if enough resources were brought to bear.  Lipkin pointed to a slate of researchers in his lab working on ME/CFS to signify the major shift he’s seen happen in just the last couple of years. He said “I couldn’t have gotten them five years ago”.

He highlighted two places the patient community can make an impact:

  • Funding Pilot Studies –   The community can fund pilot studies which can be turned into big grants
  • Advocacy – Lipkin is a savvy researcher. He knows how the NIH works, and once again he emphasized the need for the ME/CFS community to push harder legislatively – to talk to their representatives in the House of Representatives, in particular – and get them to push the NIH for more funding.

Lipkin’s Bucket List

Ian Lipkin has clearly developed a special relationship with ME/CFS, Dr. Peterson, the Simmaron Research Institute. He hadn’t been in the Lake Tahoe area for decades, yet he and two of his assistants had flown across the country to support the Simmaron Research Institute’s spinal fluid work. He was even shaking hands.

lipkin bucket list chronic fatigue

Lipkin’s Bucket List contains two items: solving ME/CFS is one of them.

I shook my head – not for the first time – about Ian Lipkin. How had we gotten so lucky? Lipkin oversees the work of 65 researchers in the U.S. and 150 more across the globe. The New York Times reported that on any given day his lab had 140 viral research projects underway. The head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Anthony Fauci said, “Lipkin really stands out from the crowd.”

Yet, here he was in the Lake Tahoe area in mid-December exhorting the audience to support an important Simmaron study that he believed needed funding.

What had driven the “The World’s Most Celebrated Virus Hunter” to take on our disease? I asked his assistants. They told me that Ian Lipkin wants to do two things more than anything else before he retires: he wants to solve ME/CFS, and he wants to solve autism. We’re on his bucket list.

That floored me even more (:)) so I asked – but, but…..doesn’t  he care what other people think about this neglected disease? That question left them almost gasping for breath. After they had been able to calm down, they assured me: no Ian Lipkin doesn’t care.

The Simmaron Research Foundation’s Next Spinal Fluid Study

Lipkin was at the event to support the Simmaron Research Institute’s next spinal fluid study. The results of the first one – the most extensive spinal fluid study ever done in ME/CFS – were eye-opening. Using Dr. Peterson’s suggestion to separate atypical from typical ME/CFS patients, and focusing on patients with a longer duration illness, they’d found evidence of an immune dysregulation almost equal to that found in MS. The difference was that instead of being raised, the cytokine levels were reduced in ME/CFS.

That finding surely left a big smile on Lipkin’s and Hornig’s faces.  Earlier they’d found evidence of a profound reduction in immune functioning in the blood of later-duration ME/CFS patients.  Now a similar reduction was showing up in their spinal fluid. These unprecedented findings suggested they were uncovering system-wide problems.

No wonder Lipkin was eager to begin a new and larger spinal fluid study: it’s part of achieving his bucket list.

SR_Donate_6.9.14_1

Triple Your Support! – Between now and Dec 31 triple your support for Ian Lipkin’s work with the Simmaron Research Foundation (SRF). A generous donor is offering to match $2 for every $1 donated before Dec 31. The funds will support the SRF’s collaborations with Drs. Ian Lipkin and Mady Hornig at Columbia University.

 

Tea Time at Simmaron Pt II: The Infectious Cluster Study

KKnox

Konstance Knox, PhD Chair, Simmaron’s Scientific Advisory Board

In a recent  Simmaron Tea event, Simmaron’s research collaborators talked about their work to propel discovery in our disease. In Part 2 of our summary, we review Dr. Konstance Knox’s presentation on her collaboration to identify insect-borne pathogens in ME/CFS patients.

Dr. Knox, CEO of Coppe Healthcare Solutions, is a longtime collaborator of Simmaron Research and Dr. Daniel Peterson. A contributor to Simmaron’s spinal fluid studies, she has done years of viral testing and research in patients with ME/CFS and other diseases.

Dr. Konstance Knox – Insect-Borne Diseases and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

From malaria to dengue fever to Lyme disease, “vector-borne”  (primarily mosquito and tick-borne) illnesses are among the more difficult challenges facing the medical community. While they are often associated with developing countries, people in the U.S. are not immune from them. Over 20 insect-borne illnesses occur in the U.S. and more are emerging.  A new tick-borne virus (Heartland Virus) was recently identified in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. and the dangerous tick-borne Pawossan virus was recently found in the eastern U.S. The first case of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999. Five years later it was found in every state of the Union.

Bacteria ME/CFS

Many pathogens have been associated with ME/CFS but no one has looked at insect borne pathogens until now.

We know that infectious onset of chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) commonly occurs. We know it can be triggered by many different types of infections (Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus, Giardia, SARS, hepatitis, etc.).

No study, however, has examined the extent of insect triggered illness or looked for regional clusters of such illnesses in chronic fatigue syndrome – until now.

Simmaron Research and Dr. Knox were awarded residual samples from the NIH XMRV study to comprehensively assess the incidence of insect-borne illnesses in ME/CFS patients across the U.S. Dr. Konstance Knox will lead the first study allowed to use the rigorously collected and characterized samples from the XMRV study.

The study builds on historical associations with ME/CFS that have been bypassed in recent years.

History Repeating Itself?

Insect-borne pathogens by their nature tend to form clusters of illness, and chronic fatigue syndrome, of course, first became well-known when clusters popped up in Incline Village/Lake Tahoe, Lyndonville and other cities in the early 1980’s. Dr. Knox reported that since 1934 at least 12 clusters have been identified in the U.S. including six in the Lake Tahoe region alone.

culex mosquito

Could your “flu” have come from a mosquito?

Over the past 20 years there’s been little focus on clusters.  From the Norwegian Giardia and Canadian SARS to the Ebolavirus outbreaks, however, every significant infectious outbreak has left behind a cluster of ME/CFS-like patients.

This study will look for clusters of regional insect-borne illnesses in ME/CFS patients in the U.S.  It is driven by the hypothesis that for some people the “flu” they never got over was not caused by some innocuous cold bug but resulted from a mosquito or tick bite.

Comprehensiveness is a keyword for this study. Now only will it involve hundreds of ME/CFS patients from across the U.S., it will also examine almost all possible insect-borne illnesses found in the U.S. including some that are rarely studied.  Studies of this size and scope have rarely been done in ME/CFS. The pathogens tested for include:

Tick-borne Pathogens

  • Borrelia burgdorferi – Ixodes scapularis, I. pacificus –found across  the U.S.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) – Europe and Russia, poorly studied in U.S.
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum – Ixodes scapularis, I. pacificus – mostly eastern U.S.
  • Ehrlichia chaffeensis – Lone Star Tick – southeastern/southcentral U.S.
  • Babesia microti – Ixodes scapularis – northeastern/midwestern U.S.
  • Rickettsia rickettsia – American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni), and brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) – across the U.S.
  • Coxiella burnetii – associated with cattle/goats/sheep – spread through dust – across the U.S.

Mosquito-borne Pathogens

  • West Nile Virus (WNV) – across the U.S.
  • Dengue Virus (DENV) – southeastern U.S./Texas
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) – eastern U.S.
  • Western Equine Encephalitis Virus (WEEV) – west of the Mississippi
  • Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV) – eastern and central U.S.
  • California Encephalitis Virus (CEV) – California
  • La Crosse Virus (LCV) – California

Possibly High Misdiagnosis Rates

Dr. Knox believes misdiagnosis rates of these infections could be high. Some are poorly studied and most doctors don’t know about many of them, anyway.  Plus unless severe symptoms are present many are rarely tested for . Sudden seizures or blindness may get you tested for West Nile virus, for instance, but more moderate flu-like symptoms it often produces probably will not.

Lyme disease map

Lyme disease is endemic in several parts of the U.S.

Post-infectious fatigue states following insect-borne infections appear to be common. Over 50% of people with an active West Nile Virus infection still experienced fatigue, cognitive problems, headaches and muscle weakness eighteen months later.  Dengue fever, which has re-emerged in the southeastern United States is known to leave behind an ME/CFS-like condition in some patients. Descriptions of virtually all these infections note the “long-term sequelae”; i.e. the long term effects they can leave behind.

Resolving a Medical Mystery?

Plus, a virus like tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) could hold a clue to controversy that’s roiled the medical profession. Different groups assert that Lyme disease is either a) a relatively rare disease that responds well to antibiotics or b) a common disease that often does not respond to antibiotics and often persists in a chronic state.

Ticked Off? Simmaron is doing the research.

But what if they’re both looking in the wrong place? What if that tick bite transmitted a different infection along with the Borrelia – an infection that is resistant to antibiotics? Could the chronic Lyme disease patients are suffering from be a different, undiagnosed tick-borne illness?

Konstance Knox believes a good candidate may be tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).  TBEV is common in Europe and Asia but has been inadequately studied in the U.S.  It can produce fatigue that can persist for years and it can be transmitted quickly.  People who pluck off a tick before it’s been on them for 24 hours may be relieved that it hasn’t transmitted Borrelia, but TBEV– which is almost never tested for in the U.S. – can be transmitted in fifteen minutes.

Simmaron Research | Give | Donate | Scientifically Redefining ME/CFS Dr. Knox believes she will find a much greater prevalence of exposure to insect borne infections than anyone expects at this point. She hopes this will be the first of many studies examining these illnesses.

Associating ME/CFS with an increased prevalence of insect borne infections would, of course, further legitimize the disease, but the most intriguing impact of the study may be the recognition that some people have undiagnosed but treatable insect borne illnesses.

Resolving a Medical Catch-22

Patients with chronic Lyme disease and those with ME/CFS both suffer from a medical catch-22. If antibiotics don’t return people with Lyme disease to health it’s assumed they have psychological problems. On the flip side, if test results from patients with ME/CFS don’t indicate a recognized disease is present, then their illness must be in their heads as well.

Maybe, just maybe, an infection triggered by a recognized (or unrecognized) pathogen set disturbed the immune systems of both sets of chronically ill patients.

The Simmaron Research Institute believes research holds the answers patients need. This study is the first step. Join Simmaron’s quest for answers.

If you missed Part 1 of our review, find it here:  Tea-Time at Simmaron I: Mady Hornig on the “Peterson Subsets”, Immune Exhaustion and New Gut Findings In ME/CFS

Simmaron Research | Give | Donate | Scientifically Redefining ME/CFS